Citizenship & Fundamental Rights

Citizenship 
The Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India and
(a) who was born in India; or
(b) either of whose parents was born in India; or
(c) who has been ordinarily resident in India for not less than five years became a citizen of India.
The Citizenship Act, 1955, deals with matters relating to acquisition, determination and termination of Indian citizenship after the com­mencement of the Constitution.

Fundamental Rights
The Fundamental Rights in Indian constitution acts as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will live their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. hese include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before law, freedom of speech and expression, and peaceful assembly, freedom to practice religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights by means of writs such as habeas corpus. Violation of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code or other special laws, subject to discretion of the judiciary. The Fundamental Rights are defined as basic human freedoms which every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of personality. These rights universally apply to all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste or gender. Aliens (persons who are not citizens) are also considered in matters like equality before law. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain restrictions.

Originally Constitution provided seven Fundamental Rights viz.
Right to Equality
Article 14 :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
Article 15 :- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 16 :- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 17 :- End of untouchability
Article 18 :- Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted
Right to Freedom
Article 19 :- It guarantees the citizens of India the following six fundamentals freedoms:-
Freedom of Speech and Expression
Freedom of Assembly
Freedom of form Associations
Freedom of Movement
Freedom of Residence and Settlement
Freedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and Business
Article 20 :- Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Article 21 :- Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 22 :- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Right Against Exploitation
Article 23 :- Traffic in human beings prohibited
Article 24 :- No child below the age of 14 can be employed
Right to freedom of Religion
Article 25 :- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 26 :- Freedom to manage religious affairs
Article 27 :- Prohibits taxes on religious grounds
Article 28 :- Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions
Cultural and Educational Rights
Article 29 :- Protection of interests of minorities
Article 30 :- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
Article 31 :- Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act
Right to Constitutional Remedies
Article 32 :- The right to move the Supreme Court in case of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by BR Ambedkar)
Forms of Writ check
Habeas Corpus :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
Right to Property
Article 31:- Provided that "no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law." It also provided that compensation would be paid to a person whose property has been taken for public purposes.


The right to property was also one of the fundamental rights, according to the original Constitution. This right was omitted by the 44th Amendment Act in December, 1978. It is now only a legal right under Article 300-A in Part-XII of the Constitution. Thus, at present, there are only SIX fundamental  rights..
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