Idea and framing of constitution

According to Wade and Philips, "Constitution means a document having a special legal sanctity which sets out the framework and the principal functions of the organs of the Government of a State and declares the principles governing the operation of those organs”.

·         The idea of constitution of India was put forward by M. N. Roy in 1934.
·         It was first demanded by the Indian National Congress in 1935.
·         The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly set up under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946.

Constituent Assembly
·         The Assembly consisted of 389 members representing provinces (292), states (93), the Chief Commissioner Provinces (3) and Baluchistan (1).
·         First meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9.12.1946 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sachidanand Sinha(Provisional Chairman)
·         Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its Permanent Chairman on 11.12.1946.
·         The Assembly made a substantial progress and adopted the "Objective Resolution" moved by Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru,which later became the Preamble of the Constitution.
·         B.N.Rao was an Advisor to Constituent Assembly but he was not a member.

Drafting Committee
·         On 29th Aug, 1947, The Constituent Assembly set up 13 committees for framing the constitution. On the basis of the reports of these committees, a draft of the Constitution was prepared by a seven-member Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr B R Ambedkar.
·         A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.
·         Draft constitution was debated and over 2000 amendments were moved over a period of two years.
·         Finally on 26 Nov. 1949, the process was completed and Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete.
·         On 26 Jan 1950, the Constitution of India became the law of all the States and territories of India.
·         Original form of Constitution has 22 Parts and 8 Schedules

Important Committees & its Chairmen


Committee
Chairman
Committee for State Negotiation
Rajendra Prasad
Committee of Fundamental Rights & Minorities
Sardar Patel
Drafting Committee
B. R. Ambedkar
Provincial Constitution Committee
Sardar Patel
Rules of Procedure Committee
Rajendra Prasad
The Steering Committee
K. M. Munshi
Union Constitution Committee
J. L. Nehru
Union Power Committee
J. L. Nehru
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