Important Constitutional Amendments

No.
Amendments
Date
Objectives
1
Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.
18 June 1951
To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
2
Amend article 81(1)(b).
1 May 1953
Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).
3
Amend schedule 7.
22 Feb 1955
Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of 4 classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.
4
Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.
Amend schedule 9.
27 April 1955
Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution
5
Amend article 3.
24 Dec 1955
Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.
6
Amend articles 269 and 286.
Amend schedule 7.
11 Sep 1956
Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes
7
Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.
1 Nov 1956
Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories
8
Amend article 334.
5 Jan 1960
Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970
9
Amend schedule 1.
28 Dec 1960
Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10
Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
11 Aug 1961
Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
11
Amend articles 66 and 71.
19 Dec 1961
Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
12
Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
20 Dec 1961
Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
13
Amend article 170.
Insert new article 371A.
1 Dec 1963
Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A
14
Amend articles 81 and 240.
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
28 Dec 1962
Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
15
Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.
5 Oct 1963
Raise retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16
Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.
Amend schedule 3.
5 Oct 1963
Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligtory templates
17
Amend article 31A.
Amend schedule 9.
20 June 1964
To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
18
Amend article 3.
27 Aug 1966
Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories
19
Amend article 324.
11 Dec 1966
Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts
20
Insert article 233A.
22 Dec 1966
Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
21
Amend schedule 8.
10 April 1967
Include Sindhi as an Official Language
22
Amend article 275.
Insert articles 244A and 371B.
25 Sep 1969
Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam
23
Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.
23 Jan 1970
Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SC/ST and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.
24
Amend articles 13 and 368.
5 Nov 1971
Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution
25
Amend article 31.
Insert article 31C.
20 April 1972
Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property
26
Amend article 366.
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.
28 Dec 1971
Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic
27
Amend articles 239A and 240.
Insert articles 239B and 371C.
15 Feb 1972
Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers
28
Insert article 312A.
Remove article 314.
29 Aug 1972
Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence
29
Amend schedule 9.
9 June 1972
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
30
Amend article 133.
27 Feb 1973
Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law
31
Amend articles 81, 330 and 332.
17 Oct 1973
Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
32
Amend article 371.
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.
1 July 1974
Protection of regional rights in Telengana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh
33
Amend articles 101 and 190.
19 May 1974
Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
34
Amend schedule 9.
7 Sep 1974
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
35
Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1975
Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India
36
Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.
26 April 1975
Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union
37
Amend articles 239A and 240.
3 May 1975
Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly
38
Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.
1 Aug 1975
Enhances the powers of President and G
39
Amend articles 71 and 329.
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.
10 Aug 1975
Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister
40
Amend article 297.
Amend schedule 9.
27 May 1976
Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India
Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
41
Amend article 316.
7 Sep 1976
Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42
Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.
1 April 1977
Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic
43
Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.
13 April 1978
Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
44
Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12.
Amend schedule 9.
6 Sep 1978
Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
45
Amend article 334.
25 Jan 1980
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990
46
Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.
Amend schedule 7.
2 Feb 1983
Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax
47
Amend schedule 9.
26 Aug 1984
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
48
Amend article 356.
1 April 1985
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab
49
Amend article 244.
Amend schedules 5 and 6.
11 Sep 1984
Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
50
Amend article 33.
11 Sep 1984
Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure
51
Amend articles 330 and 332.
16 June 1986
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
52
Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1985
Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other
53
Insert article 371G.
20 Feb 1987
Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54
Amend articles 125 and 221.
Amend schedule 2.
1 April 1986
Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
55
Insert article 371H.
20 Feb 1987
Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh
56
Insert article 371I.
30 May 1987
Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa
57
Amend article 332.
21 Sep 1987
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
58
Insert article 394A.
Amend part 22.
9 Dec 1987
Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
59
Amend article 356.
Insert article 359A.
30 March 1988
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
60
Amend article 276.
20 Dec 1988
Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-
61
Amend article 326.
28 March 1989
Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18
62
Amend article 334.
20 Dec 1989
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000
63
Amend article 356.
Remove article 359A.
6 Jan 1990
Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed
64
Amend article 356.
16 April 1990
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab
65
Amend article 338.
12 March 1990
National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66
Amend schedule 9.
7 June 1990
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
67
Amend article 356.
4 Oct 1990
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab
68
Amend article 356.
12 March 1991
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab
69
Insert articles 239AA and 239AB.
1 Feb 1992
To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory
70
Amend articles 54 and 239AA.
21 Dec 1991
Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election
71
Amend schedule 8.
31 Aug 1992
Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages
72
Amend article 332.
5 Dec 1992
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly
73
Insert part 9.
24 April 1993
Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages
74
Insert part 9A.
1 June 1993
Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities
75
Amend article 323B.
15 May 1994
Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals
76
Amend schedule 9.
31 Aug 1994
Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution
77
Amend article 16.
17 June 1995
A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions
78
Amend schedule 9.
30 Aug 1995
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
79
Amend article 334.
25 Jan 2000
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010
80
Amend articles 269 and 270.
Remove article 272.
9 June 2000
Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81
Amend article 16.
9 June 2000
Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies
82
Amend article 335.
8 Sep 2000
Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates
83
Amend article 243M.
8 Sep 2000
Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions
84
Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.
21 Feb 2002
Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
85
Amend article 16.
4 Jan 2002
A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees
86
Amend articles 45 and 51A.
Insert article 21A.
12 Dec 2002
Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six
87
Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.
22 June 2003
Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
88
Amend article 270.
Insert article 268A
Amend schedule 7.
15 Jan 2004
To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax
89
Amend article 338.
Insert article 338A.
28 Sep 2003
The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
90
Amend article 332.
28 Sep 2003
Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area
91
Amend articles 75 and 164.
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.
1 Jan 2004
Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws
92
Amend schedule 8.
7 Jan 2004
Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as official languages
93
Amend article 15.
20 Jan 2006
To enable provision of reservation(27%) for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions
94
Amend article 164.
12 June 2006
To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhyapradesh, Orissa.
95
Amend article 334.
25 Jan 2010
To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years
96
Amend schedule 8.
23 Sep 2011
Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya"
97
Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.
12 Jan 2012
Added the words "or co-operative societies" after the word "or unions" in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.
The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.
98
To insert Article 371J in the Constitution
2 Jan 2013
To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.
99
Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.
31 Dec 2014
The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill.
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