Previous Legislations

Government of India Act 1858
·         After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British Government took direct control of territories formerly ruled by the English East India Company.
·         This act abolished East India Company and transferred powers towards the British crown to establish direct rule. 
·         It changed the designation of Governor General of India to that of Viceroy of India.
·         This Act also abolished the Dual Government introduced by Pitt’s Act, 1784.

Indian Councils Act 1861
·         Indian Councils Act 1861 enacted by Parliament of the United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India's executive council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system.
·         Indians were involved with law-making process. For this purpose, viceroy nominated the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao.

Indian Councils Act 1892
·         This Act was enacted due to the demand of the Indian National Congress to expand legislative council.
·         The number of non-official members was increased both in central and provincial legislative councils the non-official members of Indian legislative councils were henceforth to be nominated by Bengal chamber of commerce and provincial legislative council.

Indian Councils Act 1909(Morley-Minto Reform)
·         Indian Councils Act 1909 commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. 
·         The right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims and hence Lord Minto came to be known as Father of Communal Electorate.
·         The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them; excluding those items that were included as non-vote items. They were also entitled to ask supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings.

Government of India Act 1919(Montague Chelmsford Reforms)
·         After World War I, the British Government opened the door for Indians to public office and employment.
·         The idea of responsible government was emphasised upon.
·         Introduction of diarchy, Bicameralism (Two Houses) and direct elections.
·         Establishment of central public service commission in 1926.

Government of India Act 1935
·         Establishment of an All India Federation.
·         Abolition of Diarchy and introduced provincial autonomy.
·         Abolition of Council Asia.
·         Establishment of RBI, federal court, Provincial PSUs and Joint PSUs.
·         Extension of bicameralism, communal representation and franchise.

Indian Independence Act 1947
·         The legislation was formulated by the government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten
·         British Government would grant full self-government to British India by June 1948 at the latest,
·         Partition of India and Pakistan.

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