Scientific Inventions and Discoveries

Object or Phenomenon
Inventor or Discoverer
Year
Nationality
AC Motor
Nikola Tesla
1892
American
AC Transformer
William Stanley
1885
American
Achromatic Lens
John Dollond
1758
British
Adding Machine
Blaise Pascal
1642
French
Adding Machine 
(Recording)
William Seward Burroughs
1888
American
Aerosol Can
Erik Rotheim
1926
Norwegian
Air Brake
George Westinghouse
1868
American
Air Conditioning
W.H. Carrier
1911
American
Air Pump
Otto von Guericke
1650
German
Air-Inflated 
Rubber Tire
J.B. Dunlop
1887
Scottish
Airplane
Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright
1903
American
Antiseptic 
Surgery
Joseph Lister
1865
English
Arc Lamp
Charles Francis Bush
1879
American
Artificial Earth 
Satellite
USSR government scientists
1957
Soviet
Artificial Heart
Robert K. Jarvik
1982
American
Artificial Heart 
(Left Ventricle)
Michael Ellis DeBakey
1966
American
Atomated 
Machine-Oiler
Elijah McCoy, the "Real McCoy"
1875
Canadian
Atomic Bomb
U.S. government scientists
1945
American
Aureomycin
Benjamin Minge Duggar and
Chandra Bose Subba Row
1948
American
Autogiro
Juan de la Cierva
1923
Spanish
Automated
Electric Elevator
Alexander Miles
1887
American

Automobile 
Engine
 (Two-Cycle)
Karl Benz
1879
German
Automobile 
Self-Starter
Charles Franklin Kettering
1915
American
Automobile
(Int.Combustion 
Engine)
Karl Benz and
Gottlieb Daimler
1885
German
Bacteria
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1683
Dutch
Balloon, 
Hot-Air
Joseph Michel Montgolfier and
Jacques E'tienne Montgolfier
1783
French
Ballpoint Pen
Georg and Ladislao Biro
1938
Hungarian
Barometer
Evangelista Torricelli
1643
Italian
Bathyscaphe
Auguste Piccard
1947
Swiss
Bathysphere
(Charles) William Beebe
1930
American
Bessemer 
Converter 
(Steel)
Sir Henry Bessemer
1856
British
Betatron
Donald William Kerst
1940
American
Bicycle 
(No Pedals)
Karl D. Sauerbronn
1816
German
Bicycle 
(With Pedals)
Kirkpatrick MacMillan
1839
British
Bifocal Lens
Benjamin Franklin
1780
American
Birth-Control 
Pill
Gregory Pincus, John Rock, and
Min-chueh Chang
1960
American
Blood Transfusion
Jean-Baptiste Denys
1625
French
Braille Printing
Louis Braille
1829
French
Breech- Loading
 Rifle
Edward Maynard
1851
American
Browning Gun
 (Automatic Rifle)
John Moses Browning
1916
American
Bubble Chamber
 (Nuclear Particle
Detector)
Donald Arthur Glaser
1952
American
Buna (Synthetic
Rubber)
German scientists
1935
German
Calculating 
Machine
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
1671
German
Carbon Dating
W.F. Libby
1955
American
Cash Register
James J. Ritty
1879
American
CAT (Computerized
Axial Tomography) 
Scanner
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1975
British
Cathode Ray Tube
Sir William Crookes
1878
British
Cellophane
Jacques Edwin Brandenberger
1908
Swiss
Cellophane
Jacques Edwin Brandenberger
1911
Swiss
Celluloid
John Wesley Hyatt and Isaiah Hyatt
1870
American
Chlormycetin
Mildred Rebstock
1947
American
Chlorophyll 
Synthesized
Robert Burns Woodward
1960
American
Color Television
Peter Carl Goldmark
1950
American
Communications
Satellite
U.S. government scientists
1958
American
Compact Disc
Joop Sinjou
Toshi Tada Doi
1979
Dutch
Japanese
Compound 
Microscope
Zacharias Janssen
1590
Dutch
Computer (Personal)
Steve Wozniak
1976
American
Continuous Current
 Dynamo
Zenobe-Theophile Gramme
1871
Belgian
Cortisone 
Synthesized
Percy Julian, Edward Kendall
Tadeus Reichstein
1935
Americans
Swiss
Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney
1793
American
Cracked Gasoline
William Meriam Burton
1913
American
Cream Separator
Carl Gustav de Laval
1878
Swedish
Cyclotron
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
1931
American
Ddt
Paul Moeller
1939
Swiss
Diesel Engine
Rudolf Diesel
1893
German
Differential Analyzer (Analogue Computer)
Vannevar Bush
1931
American
Digital Computer,
Electronic
John Presper Eckert, Jr., and
John W. Mauchly
1946
American
Diode Rectifier 
Tube (Radio)
Sir John Ambrose Fleming
1905
British
Diving Bell
Edmund Halley
1717
English
Dry Cell
Georges Leclanche'
1868
French
Dynamite
Alfred Bernhard Nobel
1866
Swedish
Dynamo
Michael Faraday
1831
British
Electric Battery
Count Alessandro Volta
1800
Italian
Electric Furnace
Wilhelm Siemens
1861
British
Electric Motor
Michael Faraday
1821
British
Electric Streetcar
Thomas Davenport
1834
American
Electric Welding
Elihu Thomson
1877
American
Electro- cardiograph
Willem Einthoven
1903
Dutch
Electromagnet
William Sturgeon
1823
British
Electron Microscope
German scientists
1935
German
Electronic Pocket 
Calculator
J.S. Kilby and J.D. Merryman
1972
American
Electroplating
Luigi Gasparo Brugnatelli
1805
Italian
Elevator (With Brake)
Elisha Graves Otis
1852
American
Ether
Crawford Williamson Long
1846
American
Ethernet
Robert M. Metcalfe & D.R. Boggs
1974
American
Experimental Airplane
Samuel Pierpont Langley
1896
American
Fiberoptics
Bell Laboratories
1975
American
First Full Synthesis Of A Gene
Har Gobind Khorana
1970
American
First Magneto-
hydrodynamic Power Generator
USSR government scientists
1972
Soviet
First Prototype 
Rotary Engine
Felix Wankel
1956
German
Flyball Governor
James Watt
1788
British
Food Preservation (By Sterilization & 
Air-Exclusion)
Francois Appert
1810
French
Fountain Pen
Lewis Edson Waterman
1884
American
Fourdrinier Machine (Papermaking)
Louis Robert
1799
French
Freon (Low- Boiling
 Fluorine Compounds)
Thomas Midgley and coworkers
1930
American
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Edwin Howard Armstrong
1933
American
Friction Match
John Walker
1827
British
Galvanometer
Johann Salomo Cristoph Schweigger
1820
German
Gas Mantle
Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach
1887
Austrian
Gas Turbine
John Barber
1791
British
Gas-Filled Incandescent Lamp
Irving Langmuir
1916
American
Gas-Mask (Hood)
Garrett Morgan
1914
American
Gasoline Automobile
Charles Edgar Duryea and
J. Frank Duryea
1893
American
Genetic Flaw Repaired In Mouse Cells By Recombinant DNA And Micromanipulation Techniques
W. French Anderson and coworkers
1979
American
Germ Theory Of Disease
Louis Pasteur (1859)
and Robert Koch
1876
French
German
Glider
Otto Lilienthal
1891
German
Gramophone (Disk Records)
Emile Berliner
1887
American
Graphophone (Dictating Machine)
Chichester A. Bell and
Charles Sumner Tainter
1885
American
Guided Missile
Wernher von Braun
1942
German
Guncotton
Christian Friedrich Schoenbein
1846
German
Gyrocompass
Hermann Anschutz-Kaempfe
1906
German
Gyroscope
Jean Bernard Leon Foucault
1852
French
Gyroscopic Compass And Stabilizer
Elmer Ambrose Sperry
1910
American
Harvester
Charles and William Marsh
1858
American
Helicopter
Igor Sikorsky
1939
American
Heredity, Laws Of
Gregor Mendel
1865
Austrian
Heterodyne Radio Receiver
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden
1913
American
High-Temperature Superconductors
J. Georg Bednorz
Karl A. Moeller
1986
German
Swiss
Holography
Dennis Gabon
1947
English
Hovercraft
Christopher Cockerell
1956
English
Human Heart Transplant
Christiaan Neethling Barnard
1967
South Africa
Hydraulic Press
Joseph Bramah
1795
English
Hydrogen Bomb
U.S. government scientists
1952
American
Hydrogenation Of Coal
Friedrich Bergius
1910
German
Hygrometer
J.F. Daniell
1820
English
Hypodermic Syringe
Alexander Wood
1855
Scottish
Illuminating Gas
William Murdock
1792
Scottish
Insulin
Sir Frederick Grant Banting
1922
Canadian
Integrated Circuit
Jack Kilby, Robert Noyce
1959
American
Internal-Combustion Engine (Four-Cycle)
Nikolaus August Otto
1877
German
Internal- Combustion Engine
(Gas, Two-Cycle)
Sadi Carnot (theory, 1824)
Jean-Joseph-Etienne Lenoir
1860
French
Internet (Initially "Arpanet")
Leonard Kleinrock
1969
American
Jacquard Loom
Joseph Marie Jacquard
1800
French
Jet Engine Propulsion
Sir Frank Whittle
Hans von Ohain
1936
English
German
Kevlar Technology
Stephanie Kwolek
1965
American
Kinematoscope
Coleman Sellers
1861
American
Kodak Camera
George Eastman
1888
American
Laser
Charles Hard Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, and Gordon Gould
1960
American
Leyden Jar (Condenser)
E.G. von Kleist
1745
German
Light Bulb
(Incandescent Filament)
Thomas Alva Edison
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
1879
American
British
Light- Emitting Diode (LED)
Nick Holonyak, Jr.
1962
American
Lightning Rod
Benjamin Franklin
1752
American
Linotype
Ottmar Mergenthaler
1880
American
Liquid-Crystal Display
George Heilmeier
1964
American
Liquid-Fuel Rocket
Robert Hutchings Goddard
1926
American
Lithography
Aloys Senefelder
1796
German
Machine Gun
Richard Jordan Gatling
1861
American
Magnetic Boat
Yoshiro Saji
1992
Japanese
Magnifying Glass
Roger Bacon
1250
English
Mammal To Mammal Gene Transplants
Paul Berg, Richard Mulligan, and Bruce Howard
1978
American
Marine Chronometer
John Harrison
1759
British
Maser
Charles Townes
1953
American
Mass Spectrograph
Sir Francis William Aston
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
1919
British
American
Mercerized Cotton
John Mercer
1850
British
Mercury Thermometer
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
1714
German
Mercury- Vapor Lamp
Peter Cooper Hewitt
1912
American
Methanol. - Volume, Pressure, Temperature Relation In Gases.
Robert Boyle
1661
Irish
Microphone
Emile Berliner
1877
American
Microprocessor
Ted Hoff
1971
American
Microwave Oven
Percy L. Spencer
1947
American
Mimeograph
Albert Blake Dick
1887
American
Modern Gas-Turbine Engine
Sir Frank Whittle
1930
British
Monotype
Tolbert Lanston
1887
American
Morse Code
Samuel Finley Breese Morse
1838
American
Motion Picture Camera (Kinetograph)
Thomas Alva Edison
William K. L. Dickson
1891
American
British
Motion Picture Projection
Louis Jean Lumiere and Auguste Marie Lumiere
Charles Francis Jenkins
1894
French

American
Motion Picture Viewer   (Kinetoscope)
Thomas Alva Edison
William K. L. Dickson
1891
American
British
Motion, Laws Of
Isaac Newton
1687
English
Mri (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield
1977
American
Multigrid Electron Tube
Irving Langmuir
1913
American
Multiple- Wheel Steam Turbine
Sir Charles Algernon Parsons
1884
British
Neon Lamp
Georges Claude
1911
French
Neoprene (Synthetic Rubber)
Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland and Wallace Hume Carothers
1930
American
Nipkow Disk (Mechanical Television Scanning Device)
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
1884
German
Nitroglycerin
Ascanio Sobrero
1846
Italian
Nmr (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
Felix Bloch & Edward Purcell
1950
American
Nonrigid Airship
Henri Giffard
1852
French
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Raymond Damadian
1971
American
Nuclear Reactor
Enrico Fermi
1942
American
Nylon
Wallace Hume Carothers
1935
American
Opthalmoscope
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
1851
German
Optical Fibers
Narinder S. Kapany
1955
Indian
Paints & Stains From Soybeans
George W. Carver
1927
American
Paper (From Wood Pulp, Sulfite Process)
Benjamin Chew Tilghman
1866
American
Pattern Loom
Joseph Marie Jacquard
1801
French
Pendulum Clock
Christiaan Huygens
1656
Dutch
Penicillin
Sir Alexander Fleming
1928
British
Phase Contrast Microscope
Frits Zernike
1932
Dutch
Phosphorus Match
Charles Sauria
1831
French
Photoelectric Cell
Julius Elster Hans F. Geitel
1893
German
Photography
Louis-Jacques-Mande' Daguerre
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
and William Henry Fox Talbot
1839
French
British
Piano
Bartolomeo Cristofori
1710
Italian
Pistol (Revolver)
Samuel Colt
1835
American
Plastic Synthesized (Bakelite)
Leo H. Baekeland
1910
American
Platform Scales
Thaddeus Fairbanks
1830
American
Pneumatic Tire
Robert William Thompson
1845
American
Pocket Watch
Peter Henlein
1504
German
Polaroid Land Camera
Edwin Herbert Land
1947
American
Polio Vaccine
Jonas Salk
1954
American
Portland Cement
Joseph Aspdin
1824
British
Power Loom
Edmund Cartwright
1785
British
Printing Press
Johann Gutenberg
1450
German
Printing Press
Frederick Koenig
1810
German
Quadruplex Telegraph
Thomas Alva Edison
1874
American
Quick- Frozen Food
Clarence Birdseye
1924
American
Radiolocator (Radar)
Sir Robert Watson-Watt
1935
British
Radiotelephone
Valdemar Poulsen
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden
1902
Danish
American
Railroad Locomotive
George Stephenson
1814
British
Ramjet Airplane
Rene' Leduc
1949
French
Ramjet Engine
Rene' Lorin
1913
French
Rayon (Acetate)
Charles Frederick Cross
1895
British
Rayon (Cuprammonium)
Louis Henri Despeissis
1890
French
Rayon (Nitrocellulose)
Comte Hilaire Bernigaud de Chardonnet
1884
French
Rayon (Viscose)
Charles Frederick Cross
1892
British
Reaper
Cyrus Hall McCormick
1831
American
Recombinant DNA (Genetic Engineering)
U.S. scientists
1974
American
Reflecting Telescope
Isaac Newton
1668
English
Refrigerator
Alexander Twining
& James Harrison
1850
American
& Australian
Refrigerator Car
G.F. Swift
1877
American
Reinforced Concrete
F.J. Monier
1849
French
Rigid Dirigible Airship
Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin
1900
German
Rotary Printing Press
Richard March Hoe
1846
American
Safety Lamp
Sir Humphry Davy
1815
British
Safety Matches
J.E. Lundstrom
1855
Swedish
Safety Pin
Walter Hunt
1849
American
Salvarsan
Paul Ehrlich
1909
German
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Gerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer
1983
German
Swiss
Scintillation Counter
Hartmut Kallmann
1948
German
Screw Propeller
John Stevens
1804
American
Seed Drill
Jethro Tull
1701
English
Sensitized Photographic Paper
Leo Hendrik Baekeland
1898
American
Sewing Machine
Barthelemy Thimonnier
1830
French
Silicon
Jons Jakob Berzelius
1823
Swedish
Skylab Orbiting Space Laboratory
U.S. government scientists
1973
American
Smallpox Vaccination
Edward Jenner
1796
British
Snowmobile
Armand Bombardier
1937
Canadian
Sodium- Cooled Atomic Reactor
U.S. government scientists
1957
American
Solar Battery
Bell Telephone Laboratory scientists
1954
American
Solid- Fuel Rocket
William Congreve
1804
British
Sound Motion Pictures
T.W. Case
1922-26
American
Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration engineers
1981
American
Spectroscope
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen
1859
German
Spinning Frame
R. Arkwright
1769
English
Spinning Jenny
James Hargreaves
1764
British
Steam Engine
Thomas Newcomen
1712
British
Steam Engine (With Separate Condenser)
James Watt
1769
British
Steam Hammer
James Nasmyth
1839
Scottish
Steam Locomotive
Richard Trevithick
1804
British
Steam Pump
Thomas Savery
1698
English
Steam Turbine
Giovanni Branca
1629
Italian
Steam Turbine
C.A. Parsons
1884
English
Steam Turbine
C.G. de Laval
1889
Swedish
Steamboat
John Fitch
1786
American
Steel Pen
Samuel Harrison
1780
English
Stereotyping
William Ged
1725
Scottish
Stethoscope
Rene' Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec
1819
French
Streptomycin
Selman A. Waksman
1945
American
Structure Of DNA Described
James Watson
and Francis Crick
1953
American
English
Submarine
David Bushnell
1775
American
Sulfanllamide
Gerhard Domagk
1935
German
Supercomputer
J.H. Van Tassel and Seymour Cray
1976
American
Synthesis Of Human Insulin Genes
Roberto Crea, Tadaaki Hirose, Adam Kraszewski, and Keiichi Itakura
1978
American
Synthetic Diamonds
General Electric scientists
1955
American
Synthetic Rubber
Sir William Augustus Tilden
1891
British
Talking Machine (Phonograph)
Thomas Alva Edison
1877
American
Telegraph
Samuel Finley Breese Morse
Sir Charles Wheatstone
1837
American
British
Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
1876
American
Telescope
Hans Lippershey
1608
Dutch
Television Iconoscope
Vladimir Kosma Zworykin
1923
American
Television Image Dissector Tube
Philo Taylor Farnsworth
1925
American
Three- Color Camera
Frederick Eugene Ives
1892
American
Three-Way Traffic Signal
Garrett Morgan
1923
American
Threshing Machine
Andrew Meikle
1784
British
Transistor
John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Shockley
1948
American
Triode Amplifier Tube (Radio)
Lee De Forest
1907
American
Tunable Dye Laser
Mary Spaeth
1966
American
Turbojet Aircraft Engine
Sir Frank Whittle
1941
British
Twin-Rotor Helicopter
Heinrich Focke
1936
German
Two-Color Motion Picture Camera
C. Albert Smith
1908
British
Typewriter
W.A. Burt
1829
American
Typewriter
Carlos Glidden and
Christopher Latham Sholes
1868
American
Universe Is Expanding
George LeMaitre
Edwin P. Hubble
1927-9
Belgian
American
V-2 (Rocket- Propelled Bomb)
German scientists
1944
German
Vacuum Bottle (Dewar Flask)
Sir James Dewar
1892
British
Van De Graaff Generator
Robert Jemison Van de Graaff
1932
American
Videotape
Charles Ginsberg, Ray Dolby
1956
American
Vitamins
Casimir Funk
1911
Polish
Vulcanized Rubber
Charles Goodyear
1839
American
Water Thermometer
Galileo
1593
Italian
Water Turbine
James Bicheno Francis
1849
American
Web-Fed Newspaper Printing Press
Richard March Hoe
1861
American
Windshield Wipers
Mary Anderson
1903
American
Wireless Telegraph
Marchese Guglielmo Marconi
1895
Italian
Xerography
Chester Carlson
1942
American
X-Ray
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen
1895
German
X-Ray Tube
William David Coolidge
1916
American
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