Minerals in Human Body their Functions, Deficiency Diseases and Rich Sources

Minerals are important substances that help your body's form and function on many different levels.
·        Minerals are Inorganic Substances.
·        At least 29 elements are found in our body.
·        Minerals have No Energy value but imbalance may cause diseases
There are two different types of minerals required to human body
1.     Macro-Minerals (or) Macro-Nutrients: (RDA > 200 mg/day)
These are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Sulphur.
2.     Micro-minerals (or) Micro-Nutrients: (RDA < 200 mg/day)

 Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Cobalt, Fluoride and Selenium.

List of Minerals their Functions and Sources-
Mineral
Function
Deficiency/ Diseases
Sources
Calcium
Component of bones and teeth, helps in blood clotting, Muscle contraction, Conduction of nerve impulses etc. Acts as cofactor of Myosin ATPase.
Defective bones and teeth, Tetany and rickets, Loss of muscle coordination
Milk, dairy foods, cereals (Ragi), meat, vegetables, fruits (Sitaphals)
Phosphorous

Formation of bones and teeth, Component of nucleic acids, energy molecules and coenzymes
Poor body growth, weak bones and teeth.
Milk, dairy foods, Cereals, eggs, fish, meat etc.
Sodium


Maintains water balance, blood pressure and nervous system.
Improper muscle contraction; nervous depression; loss of Na+ in urine, dehydration
Table salt, vegetables
Potassium


Osmotic balance; muscle contraction; nerve impulse conduction
Nervous disorder; poor muscle control leading to paralysis
Vegetables, molasses, banana, date etc


Magnesium

Cofactor for enzymes e.g. of hexokinase
Heart and vascular irregularities; dilated blood vessels, loss of muscle coordination.
Green leafy vegetables, soyabean etc
Chlorine


Main anion of ECF, Acid- base balance
Vomiting and hypochloremic alkalosis
Common salt
Iron

Formation of Hb so help in O2 transport, Component of cytochromes of ETS, Cofactor of catalase enzyme.
Anaemia; skin problems
Liver, eggs, molasses, cereals, pulses, leafy vegetables, apple, guava etc.
Iodine
Normal functioning of thyroid; component of thyroxin so controls BMR
Goiter, Cretinism, Myxoedema

Sea foods, leafy vegetables, water, iodized salt etc.
Zinc

Cofactor of carbonic anhydrase so helps in CO2 transport, Vitamin A metabolism
Reduced respiration
Beef, cheese
Copper

Cofactor for enzymes e.g. oxidases and tyrosinase, Component of haemocyanin.
Anaemia
Liver, spleen, kidneys, peanuts, beet etc
Fluorine

Maintains enamel and prevents dental caries.
Dental caries.
Water, sea fish,
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