Supercomputers in the World

·  A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.
·  Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS).
·  As of 2015, there are supercomputers which can perform up to quadrillions of FLOPS.
·  Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s, made initially, and for decades primarily, by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation(CDC)
·  China's Tianhe-2 supercomputer which was introduced in June 2013 is currently the fastest in the world at 33.86 petaFLOPS (PFLOPS), or 33.86 quadrillions of FLOPS.

List of Latest/Recently Developed Supercomputers by Countries-
Year
Supercomputer
Peak speed
(Rmax)
Location
2013
NUDT Tianhe-2
33.86 PFLOPS
Guangzhou, China
2012
Cray Titan
17.59 PFLOPS
Oak Ridge, U.S.
2012
IBM Sequoia
17.17 PFLOPS
Livermore, U.S.
2011
Fujitsu K computer
10.51 PFLOPS
Kobe, Japan
2010
Tianhe-IA
2.566 PFLOPS
Tianjin, China
2009
Cray Jaguar
1.759 PFLOPS
Oak Ridge, U.S.
2008
IBM Roadrunner
1.026 PFLOPS
Los Alamos, U.S.
1.105 PFLOPS

Uses of different Stages Supercomputers -

Decade
Uses and computer involved
1970s
Weather forecasting, aerodynamic research (Cray-1)
1980s
Probabilistic analysis,radiation shielding modeling(CDC Cyber).
1990s
Brute force code breaking (EFF DES cracker).
2000s
3D nuclear test simulations as a substitute for legal conduct Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (ASCI Q).
2010s
Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Tianhe-1A)

·  Aditya, Anupam, PARAM Yuva-2, SAGA-220, EKA, Vikram-100, PARAM Yuva, Cray XC40, Bhaskara are the Supercomputer of India.
·  PARAM 8000 is considered India's first supercomputer. It was indigenously built in 1990 by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing.
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