Important Foreign Travellers or Envoys Visited India

Deimachos (Greek)
· 300-273 BC
· Came in India at the reign of Bindusara

Megasthenes (Greek)
· 302- 298 BC
· An Ambassador of Selecus I of Syria 
· He came to court of Chandragupta Maurya
· He wrote Indica in which he described social and administrative conditions under the Mauryas

Fa Hien/Faxian (Chinese)
· 399 A.D.-412 A.D.
· He was a Buddhist Monk.
· He was the first Chinese pilgrim to visit India to collect Buddhist texts and relics
· He visited India during Chandragupta II "Vikramaditya"
· He also visited Lumbini, the birth place of Buddha 
· He described his journey in his travelogue 'Record of Buddhist kingdoms'  

Hiuen Tsang (Chinese)
· 629-645 A.D.
· He visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana
· He came through Tashkent and Swat Valley 
· His book is Si-yu-ki or the 'Records of Western World’

I-Tsing (Chinese)
· 671-695 AD
· He visited India in connection with Buddhism.

Al-Masudi (Arab)
· 957 AD
· An Arab traveller,
· He has given an extensive account of India in his work ‘Muruj-ul-Zehab’

Al Beruni (Persian)
· 1000-1025 A.D.
· He came along with Mahmud of Ghazni
· First Muslim scholar to study India
· Known as Founder of Indology
· He travelled all over India and wrote a book ‘Tahqiq-i-Hind’

Marco Polo (Italian)
· 1254-1324 A.D.
· A Venetian traveller, visited South Indian state Kakatiya under Rudrmadevi .
· His work ‘The Book of Sir Marco Polo’ gives an account of the economic history of India
· A was a well known European traveller who visited many eastern countries.

Ibn Battuta (Morrocan)
· 1333 A.D.
· Ibn Battuta was appointed a Qadi, or judge, by Muhammad bin Tughluq.


Shihabuddin Al-Umari (Arabian Traveller)
· 1348 AD
· He came from Damascus.
· He has given a vivid account of India in his book, ‘Masalik albsar fi-mamalik al-amsar

Nicolo Conti (Italian)
· 1420-1421 AD
· He came during the rule of Devaraya I of Sangam dynasty of Vijayanagar empire.
· He gave a comprehensive account of the Hindu kingdom of Vijaynagar.

Abdul Razzak (Persian)
· 1442-1445 AD
· He was the ambassador of Shahrukh of Timurid Dynasty 
· Came during the rule of Devaraya II of Sangam dynasty of Vijayanagar empire.
· He stayed at the court of the Zamorin at Calicut
· He has given a vivid account of the Vijaynagar Empire.

Afanasy Nikitin (Russian)
· 1469-1472 AD
· A Russian merchant who documented his Indian visit in a narrative, 'The Journey beyond Three Seas'.
· He had visited the Bahmani Sultanate.
· He describes the condition of the Bahmani kingdom under Muhammad III (1463-82).

Durate Barbosa (Portuguese)
· 1500-1516 AD
· He has given a valuable narrative of the government and the people of the Vijaynagar Empire.

Domingo Paes (Portuguese)
· 1520-1522 AD
· He visited the court of Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529) of Tuluv Dynasty of Vijayanagar Empire.

Fernao Nunes (Portuguese)
· 1535-1537
· He was a chronicler and horse trader.
· Came during the rule of Achutya Deva Raya (1529-1542) of Tuluv Dynasty of Vijayanagar empire.
· He wrote the history of the empire from its earliest times of the closing years of Achyutdeva Raya’s reign.

Jan Huyghen Van Linschoten (Dutch)
· 1583 AD
· He travelled extensively along the East Indies' regions under Portuguese influence and served as the Portuguese Viceroy's secretary in Goa between 1583 and 1588. 

William Hawkins (British)
· 1609-1611 AD 
· He was an English ambassador of King James I.
· He visited the court of Jahangir.

Sir Thomas Roe (British)
· 1615-1619 AD
· He was the ambassador of King James I.
· Arrived at Jahangir's court.

Edward Terry (British)
· 1616 AD
· He was one of the first writers to describe vegetarianism (in India) to Early Modern England

Pietro Della Valle (Italian)
· 1623-1624 AD
· He visited the King Vekatappa Nayaka of Keladi in India.

Sir William Norris (British)
· He was the Company's ambassador to the Mughal Empire.
· He  visited during Aurangzeb's reign.


John Fryer (British)
· 1672-1681 AD
· He was an English traveller.
· He has given a vivid account of Surat and Bombay.

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