List of Governors-General of India and Important Events & Reformes During Their Reign/Time

»  While the British ruled India, the head of the British administration in India was the Governor General and Viceroy of India.
»  The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC).
»  The Court of Directors of EIC also created a Council of Four (based in India) to assist The Governor General, and decision of council was binding on Governor General during 1773-1784.
»  Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833 and the official became known as the Governor-General of India. And in 1858, India came under the direct control of the British Crown.
»  The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India.
»  To reflect the Governor General`s role as representative from the monarch to the feudal rulers of the princely states, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him.
»  After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, and the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the Crown.
»  The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London).
»  Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy.
»  The title remained in existence from 1858 till 1947, when India became independent in 1947. The office of Governor General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitution in 1950.




List of British Governor Generals and Viceroys During British Period in India & The Most Important Events During Their Reign:
S.N.
Name
(birth–death)
Took office
Left office
Happenings
Governors of Bengal, 1773–1833
1
Warren Hastings
(1732–1818)
20 October 1773
1 February 1785
» Regulating Act of 1773
» Supreme Court at Calcutta
» Asiatic Society of Bengal
» English Translation of Bhagwat Gita
2
Sir John Macpherson
(acting)
(1745–1821)
1 February 1785
12 September 1786
3
The Earl Cornwallis
(1738–1805)
12 September 1786
28 October 1793
»Established lower courts and appellate courts
»Sanskrit College established by Jonathan Duncan
»Permanent Settlement in Bihar and Bengal in 1793
» Introduction of Cornwallis Code
» Introduction of Civil Services in India
4
Sir John Shore
(1751–1834)
28 October 1793
18 March 1798
» Policy of Non-intervention
» Charter Act of 1793
5
Sir Alured Clarke
(acting)
(1744–1832)
18 March 1798
18 May 1798
6
The Marquess Wellesley
(1760–1842)
18 May 1798
30 July 1805
»Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance
» Fourth Anglo Mysore War 1799
» Fort William College at Calcutta
» Formation of Madras Presidency in 1801
7
The Marquess Cornwallis
(1738–1805)
30 July 1805
5 October 1805
8
Sir George Barlow, Bt
(acting)
(1762–1847)
10 October 1805
31 July 1807
9
The Lord Minto
(1751–1814)
31 July 1807
4 October 1813
» Charter Act of 1813
10
The Marquess of Hastings
(1754–1826)
4 October 1813
9 January 1823
»Ended the policy of Non-intervention
» Third Anglo-Maratha War (1816-1818)
»Creation of Bombay Presidency in 1818
»Establishment of Ryotwari System in Madras
11
John Adam
(acting)
(1779–1825)
9 January 1823
1 August 1823
12
The Lord Amherst
(1773–1857)
1 August 1823
13 March 1828
13
William Butterworth Bayley
(acting)
(1782–1860)
13 March 1828
4 July 1828
14
Lord William Bentinck
(1774–1839)
4 July 1828
1833
» Charter Act 1833
Governors-General of India, 1833–1858
14
Lord William Bentinck
(1774–1839)
1833
20 March 1835
15
Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt
(acting)
(1785–1846)
20 March 1835
4 March 1836
16
The Lord Auckland
(1784–1849)
4 March 1836
28 February 1842
17
The Lord Ellenborough
(1790–1871)
28 February 1842
June 1844
18
William Wilberforce Bird
(acting)
(1784–1857)
June 1844
23 July 1844
19
Sir Henry Hardinge
(1785–1856)
23 July 1844
12 January 1848
20
The Marquess of Dalhousie
(1812–1860)
12 January 1848
28 February 1856
» Doctrine of Lapse
» Charles Wood Dispatch
»1st Railway line connecting Bombay and Thane
» Post Office Act, 1854
»Established Public Works Department
»Engineering College was established at Roorkee
21
The Viscount Canning
(1812–1862)
28 February 1856
1 November 1858
»University of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were set up in 1857
» The revolt of 1857
»The Government of India Act, 1858
»Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.

Governors-General and Viceroys of India, 1858–1947
21
The Earl Canning
(1812–1862)
1 November 1858
21 March 1862
22
The Earl of Elgin
(1811–1863)
21 March 1862
20 November 1863
23
Sir Robert Napier
(acting)
(1810–1890)
21 November 1863
2 December 1863
24
Sir William Denison
(acting)
(1804–1871)
2 December 1863
12 January 1864
25
Sir John Lawrence, Bt
(1811–1879)
12 January 1864
12 January 1869
»Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
»High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
»Created the Indian Forest department.
26
The Earl of Mayo
(1822–1872)
12 January 1869
8 February 1872
»Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
»For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
»Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
»Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.
27
Sir John Strachey
(acting)
(1823–1907)
9 February 1872
23 February 1872
28
The Lord Napier
(acting)
(1819–1898)
24 February 1872
3 May 1872
29
The Lord Northbrook
(1826–1904)
3 May 1872
12 April 1876
30
The Lord Lytton
(1831–1891)
12 April 1876
8 June 1880
»Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
»Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser I Hind’.
»Arms act (1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
»Passed the infamous Vernacular Press act (1878).
31
The Marquess of Ripon
(1827–1909)
8 June 1880
13 December 1884
»Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
»Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882)
»Passed the local self government act (1882)
»Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations).
»The I Factory act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
»Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.
32
The Earl of Dufferin
(1826–1902)
13 December 1884
10 December 1888
»Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.
33
The Marquess of Lansdowne
(1845–1927)
10 December 1888
11 October 1894
»II Factory act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
»Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
»Indian Council act of 1892 was passed.
»Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.
34
The Earl of Elgin
(1849–1917)
11 October 1894
6 January 1899
»Great famine of (1896 – 1897)
»Lyall Commission was appointed.
35
The Lord Curzon of Kedleston
(1859–1925)
6 January 1899
18 November 1905
»Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
»Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam.
»Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
»The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP).
»Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
»Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
»Extended railways to a great extent.
36
The Earl of Minto
(1845–1914)
18 November 1905
23 November 1910
»There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
»The Indian Council act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed.
37
The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst
(1858–1944)
23 November 1910
4       April 1916
»Held a durbar in December, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
»Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
»A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (December 23, 1912).
»Gandhi ji came back to India from South Africa (1915).
»Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.
38
The Lord Chelmsford
(1868–1933)
4 April 1916
2       April 1921
»August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
»The government of India act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed.
»Rowlatt act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
»Non Cooperation Movement.
»An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
»A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916.
»Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.
39
The Earl of Reading
(1860–1935)
2 April 1921
3       April 1926
»Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
»Suppressed non – cooperation movement.
»Prince of Wales visited India in November, 1921.
»Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
»Ahmedabad session of 1921.
»Formation of Swaraj Party.
»Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
»Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N. Roy.
»Kakory Train Robbery on August 9, 1925.
»Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
»Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.
40
The Lord Irwin
(1881–1959)
3 April 1926
18 April 1931
»Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
»Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
»Dandi March (March 12, 1930).
»Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
»First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
»Gandhi Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
»Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).
41
The Earl of Willingdon
(1866–1941)
18 April 1931
18   pril 1936
»Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
»On his return Gandhi ji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in January, 1932.
»Communal Awards (August 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhi ji went on a epic fast in protest against this division.
»Third Round Table conference in 1932.
»Poona Pact was signed.
»Government of India act (1935) was passed
42
The Marquess of Linlithgow
(1887–1952)
18 April 1936
1       October 1943
»Government of India act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till October 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December)
»Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India.
»Outbreak of World War II in 1939.
»Cripps Mission in 1942.
»Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).
43
The Viscount Wavell
(1883–1950)
1 October 1943
21    February 1947
»Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed.
»Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946).
»Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Government was appointed under Nehru.
»First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on December 9, 1946.
44
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
(1900–1979)
21 February 1947
15    August 1947
»Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India.
»Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan.
»Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947.
»Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).
Governors-General of the Dominion of India, 1947–1950
44
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
(1900–1979)
15 August 1947
21 June 1948
45
C. Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
21 June 1948
26 January 1950
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