IAS Prelims CSAT Paper 2 2016 Solved Question Paper

IAS 2016 Paper-2 Solution/ Answer Key

Directions for the following 5 (five) items : Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Biomass as fuel for power, heat, and transport has the highest mitigation potential of all renewable sources. It comes from agriculture and forest residues as well as from energy crops. The biggest challenge in using biomass residues is a long­term reliable supply delivered to the power plant at reasonable costs; the key problems are logistical constraints and the costs of fuel collection. Energy crops, if not managed properly, compete with food production and may have undesirable impacts on food prices. Biomass production is also sensitive to the physical impacts of a changing climate.
Projections of the future role of biomass are probably overestimated, given the limits to the sustainable biomass supply, unless breakthrough technologies substantially increase productivity. Climate­energy models project that biomass use could increase nearly four­fold to around 150 — 200 exajoules, almost a quarter of world primary energy in 2050. However the maximum sustainable technical potential of biomass resources (both residues and energy crops) without disruption of food and forest resources ranges from 80 — 170 exajoules a year by 2050, and only part of this is realistically and economically feasible. In addition, some climate models rely on biomass­based carbon capture and storage, an unproven technology, to achieve negative emissions and to buy some time during the first half of the century.
Some liquid biofuels such as corn­based ethanol, mainly for transport, may aggravate rather than ameliorate carbon emissions on a life­cycle basis. Second generation biofuels, based on ligno­cellulosic feedstocks — such as straw, bagasse, grass and wood — hold the promise of sustainable production that is high­yielding and emit low levels of greenhouse gases, but these are still in the R & D stage.

21. What is/are the present constraint/constraints in using biomass as fuel for power generation?
1. Lack of sustainable supply of biomass
2. Biomass production competes with food production
3. Bio­energy may not always be low carbon on a life­cycle basis
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer. (a) 1 and 2 only

22. Which of the following can lead to food security problem?
1. Using agricultural and forest residues as feedstock for power generation
2. Using biomass for carbon capture and storage
3. Promoting the cultivation of energy crops
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer. (b) 3 only

23. In the context of using biomass, which of the following is/are the characteristic/characteristics of the sustainable production of biofuel?
1. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could meet all the primary energy requirements of the world by 2050
2. Biomass as a fuel for power generation does not necessarily disrupt food and forest resources
3. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could help in achieving negative emissions, given certain nascent technologies
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer. (b) 3 only

24. With reference to the passage, following assumptions have been made:
1. Some climate­energy models suggest that the use of biomass as a fuel for power generation helps in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions
2. It is not possible to use biomass as a fuel for power generation without disrupting food and forest resources
Which of these assumptions is/are valid?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer. (a) 1 only
We are witnessing a dangerous dwindling of biodiversity in our food supply. The green revolution is a mixed blessing. Over time farmers have come to rely heavily on broadly adapted, high yield crops to the exclusion of varieties adapted to the local conditions. Mono­cropping vast fields with the same genetically uniform seeds helps boost yield and meet immediate hunger needs. Yet high­yield varieties are also genetically weaker crops that require expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides. In our focus on increasing the amount of food we produce today, we have accidentally put ourselves at risk for food shortages in future.

25. Which among the following is the most logical and critical inference that can be made from the above passage?
(a) In our agricultural practices, we have become heavily dependent on expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides only due to green revolution
(b) Monocropping vast fields with high­yield varieties is possible due to green revolution
(c) Monocropping with high­yield varieties is the only way to ensure food security to millions
(d) Green revolution can pose a threat to biodiversity in food supply and food security in the long run
Answer (d) Green revolution can pose a threat to biodiversity in food supply and food security in the long run

26. A class starts at 11:00 am and lasts till 2:27 pm. Four periods of equal duration are held during this interval. After every period, a rest of 5 minutes is given to the students. The exact duration of each period is:
(a) 4 minutes
(b) 50 minutes
(c) 51 minutes
(d) 53 minutes
Answer (a) 4 minutes

27. Four friends A, B, C and D need to cross a bridge. A maximum of two persons can cross it at a time. It is night and they just have one lamp. Persons that cross the bridge must carry the lamp to find the way. A pair must walk together at the speed of slower person. After crossing the bridge, the person having faster speed in the pair will return with the lamp each time to accompany another person in the group. Finally, the lamp has to be returned at the original place and the person who returns the lamp has to cross the bridge again without lamp. To cross the bridge, the time taken by them is as follows : A: 1 minute, B: 2 minutes, C: 7 minutes and D: 10 minutes. What is the total minimum time required by all the friends to cross the bridge?
(a) 23 minutes
(b) 22 minutes
(c) 21 minutes
(d) 20 minutes

2. 30g of sugar was mixed in 10 ml water in a vessel A, 40 g of sugar Was mixed in 20 ml of water in vessel B and 20 g of sugar was mixed in 100 ml of water in vessel C. The solution in vessel B is
(a) sweeter than that in C
(b) sweeter than that in A
(c) as sweet as that in C
(d) less sweet than that in C
Answer (d) less sweet than that in C

29. In aid of charity, every student in a class contributes as many rupees as the number of students in that class. With the additional contribution of Rs. 2 by one student only, the total collection is Rs. 443. Then how many students are there in the class?
(a) 12
(b) 21
(c) 43
(d) 45
Answer (b) 21

30. Anita’s mathematics test had 70 problems carrying equal marks i.e., 10 arithmetic, 30 algebra and 30 geometry. Although she answered 70% of the arithmetic, 40% of the algebra and 60% of the geometry problems correctly, she did not pass the test because she got less than 60% marks. The number of more questions she would have to answer correctly to earn a 60% passing marks is:
(a) 1
(b) 5
(c) 7
(d) 9

Answer (b) 5
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