UPSC Prelims 2016 Paper 2 Solution
Directions for the following (eight) items :
Read the following eight passages and answer the item that follows each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Passage1By killing transparency and competition, crony capitalism is harmful to free enterprise, opportunity and economic growth. Crony capitalism, where rich and the influential are alleged to have received land and natural resources and various licences in return for pay offs to venal politicians, is now a major issue to be tackled. One of the greatest dangers to growth of developing economies like India is the middle income where crony capitalism creates oligarchies that slow down the growth.
41. Which among the following is the most logical corollary to the above passage ?
(a) Launching more welfare schemes and allocating more finances for the current schemes r are urgently needed
(b) Efforts should be made to push up economic growth by other means and provide licences to the poor
(c) Greater transparency in the functioning of the government and promoting the financial inclusion are needed at present
(d) We should concentrate more on developing manufacturing sector than service sector
Passage2Climate adaptation may be rendered ineffective if policies are not designed in the context of other development concerns. For instance, a comprehensive strategy that seeks to improve food security in the context of climate change may include a set of coordinated measures related to agricultural extension, crop diversification, integrated water and pest management and agricultural information series. Some of these measures may have to do with climate changes and others with economic development.
42. What is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?
(a) It is difficult to pursue climate adaptation in the developing countries
(b) Improving food security is a far more complex issue than climate adaptation
(c) Every developmental activity is directly or indirectly linked to climate adaptation
(d) Climate adaptation should be examined in tandem with other economic development options
Answer (d) Climate adaptation should be examined in tandem with other economic development options
Passage-3Understanding of the role of biodiversity in the hydrological cycle enables better poli cymaking. The term biodiversity refers to the variety of plants, animals, microorganisms, and the ecosystems in which they occur. Water and biodiversity are interdependent. In reality, the hydrological cycle decides how biodiversity functions. In turn, vegetation and soil drive the movement of water. Every glass of water we drink has, at least in part, passed through fish, trees, bacteria, soil and other organisms. Passing through these ecosystems, it is cleansed and made fit for consumption. The supply of water is a critical service that the environment provides.
43. Which among the following is the most critical inference that can be made from the above passage ?
(a) biodiversity sustains the ability of nature to recycle water
(b) We cannot get potable water without the existence of living organisms
(c) Plants, animals and microorganisms continuously interact among themselves
(d) Living organisms could not have come into existence without hydrological cycle
Answer (a) biodiversity sustains the ability of nature to recycle water
Passage-4In the last decade, the banking sector has been restructured with a high degree of automation and products that mainly serve middle class and upper middle class society. Today there is need for a new agenda for the banking and non banking financial services that does not exclude the common man
44. Which one of the following is the message that is essentially implied in the above passage?
(a) Need for more automation and more products of bank
(b) Need for a radical restructuring of our entire public finance system
(c) Need to integrate banking and non banking institutions
(d) Need to promote financial inclusion
Answer (d) Need to promote financial inclusion
Passage-5Safe and sustainable sanitation in slums has immeasurable benefits to women and girls in terms of their health, safety, privacy and dimity. However, women do not feature in most of the schemes and policies on urban sanitation. The fact that even now the manual scavenging exists, ones to show that not enough has been done to promote pour flush toilets and discontinue the use of dry latrines. A more sustained and rigorous campaign needs to be launched towards the right to sanitation on a very large scale. This should primarily focus on the abolition of manual scavenging.
45. With reference to the above passage, consider the following statements:
1. Urban sanitation problems can be fully solved by the abolition of manual scavenging only
2. There is a need to promote greater awareness on safe sanitation practices in urban areas Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both I and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer (b) 2 only
Passage-6To understand the nature and quantity of Government proper for man, it is necessary to attend to his character. As nature created him for social life, she fitted him for the station she intended. In all cases she made his natural wants greater than his individual powers. No one man is capable, without the aid of society, of supplying his own wants and those wants, acting upon every individual, impel the whole of them into society.
46. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage ?
(a) Nature has created a great diversity in human society
(b) Any given human society is always short of its wants
(c) Social life is a specific characteristic of man
(d) Diverse natural wants forced man towards social system
Answer (d) Diverse natural wants forced man towards social system
Passage-7The nature of the legal imperatives in any given state corresponds to the effective demands that state encounters, and that these, in their turn, depend, in a general way, upon the manner in which economic power is distributed in the society which the state controls.
47. The statement refers to:
(a) the antithesis of Politics and Economics
(b) the interrelationship of Politics and Economics
(c) the predominance of Economics over Politics
(d) the predominance of Politics over Economics
Answer (b) the interrelationship of Politics and Economics
Passage- 8About 15 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions come from agricultural practices. This includes nitrous oxide fertilizers methane from livestock, rice production, and manure storage and carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning biomass, but this excludes CO2 emissions from soil management practices, sayannah burning and deforestation. Foresty and use, and landuse change account for another percent of greenhouse gas emissions each ear, three quarters of which come from tropical deforestation. The remainder is largely from draining and burning tropical peatland. About the same amount of carbon is stored in the world’s peatlands as is stored in the Amazon rainforest.
48. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?
(a) Organic farming should immediately replace mechanised and chemical dependant agricultural practices all over the world
(b) It is imperative for us to modify our land use practices in order to mitigate climate change.
(c) There are no technological solutions to the problem of greenhouse gas emissions
(d) Tropical areas are the chief sites of carbon sequestration
Answer (a) Organic farming should immediately replace mechanised and chemical dependant agricultural practices all over the world
49. A person climbs a hill in a straight path from point ‘O’ on the ground in the direction of northeast and reaches a point ‘A’ after travelling a distance of 5 km. Then, from the point ‘A’ he moves to point ‘B’ in the direction of northwest. Let the distance AB be 12 km. Now, how far is the person away from the starting point ‘O’?
(a) 7 km
(b) 13 km
(c) 17 km
(d) 11 km
Answer (b) 13 km
50. An agricultural field is in the form of a rectangle having length 1 meters and breadth 2 meters (1 and 2 are variable). If 1 2 40 meters, then the area of the agricultural field will not exceed which one of the following values?
(a) 400 sq m
(b) 300 sq m
(c) 200 sq m
(d) 0 sq m
Answer (a) 400 sq m
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