MPSC Answer Key 2017 Paper 2

MPSC 2017 Solved Paper 2

MPSC Paper 2 Answer Key
Read the following passage and answer the questions from 6 to 10 :
The town belonging to the colonized people, or at least the ‘native town’ , the Negro village, the medina, the reservation , is a place of ill fame, peopled by men of evil repute. They are born there, it matters little where or how; they die there, it matters not where, nor how. The ‘native town’ is a hungry town, starved of bread , of meat, of shoes , of coal, of light. The native town is  a crouching village, a town on its knees, a town wallowing in the mire…. The look that the native turns on the settler’s town is a look of lust, a look of envy…. The colonized man is an envious man. And this the settler knows very well….. It is true, for there is no native who does not dream at least once a day of setting himself up in the settler’s place.
This world divided into compartments is inhabited by two different species. The originality of the colonial context is that economic reality, inequality , and the immense difference of ways of life never come to mask the human realities. When you examine at close quarters the colonial contest, it is evident that what parcels out the world is to begin with the fact of belonging to or not belonging to a given race, a given species. In the colonies,  the economic substructure is also a superstructure. The cause is the consequence; you are rich  because you are white, you are white because you are rich.
In the colonies, the foreigner coming from another country imposed his rule by means of guns and machines. In defiance of his successful transplantation, in spite of his appropriation, the settler still remains a foreigner. It is neither the act of owning factories , nor estates , nor a bank balance which distinguishes the governing classes. The governing race is first and foremost those who come from elsewhere, those who are unlike the original inhabitants, “the other”.
6)  Why is the ‘native town’ a hungry town?
1) It did not have agricultural farms.
2) It did not have markets.
3) The blacks were steeped in poverty.
4) They were denied their fundamental rights by the whites.
(a)  only 1 and 2
(b)  only 3 and 4
(c)  only 1
(d)  only 4

7) Why does the native look at the settler’s town with envy?
1) it arises from a sense of desperation.
2) He has no other option in his life.
3) He wants to occupy a position of power.
4) He wants to be the colonizer instead of the colonized.
(a)  only 1 is correct
(b) only 2 is correct
(c)  1 and 4 are correct
(d)  3 and 4 are correct

8) What is the settler’s attitude towards the blacks?
1) The settler is not afraid.
2) The settler considers the blacks to be harmless
3) The settler is contemptuous of the blacks.
4) The settler feels resentment because he knows that his position is never safe
(a) 3 and 4 are correct
(b)  only 1 is correct
(c) only 4 is correct
(d)  2 and 3 are correct

9) The statement ‘you are rich because you are white’ means
1) That your gender defines your status in the colony.
2) That your race defines your status in the colony.
3) The place that you come from defines your status in the colony.
4) The language that you speak defines your status in the colony.
(a) 1 and 3 are correct
(b)  3 and 4 are correct
(c)  only 2 is correct
(d)  only 4 is correct

10) In spite of seizing the land the settler always remains
1) a native
2) an ally
3) a foreigner
4) None of the above
(a) only 4 is correct
(b)  only 3 is correct
(c)  2 and 3 are correct
(d) only 1 is correct

Immanuel Kant wrote a treatise called “What is Enlightenment”? in 1784) He explained that “Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man’s inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in the lack of reason but in the lack of courage to use it without direction from another. Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a portion of mankind remains under lifelong tutelage and why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as their guardians. It is so easy not to be of age. That the step to competence is held to be very dangerous by the far greater portion of mankind is seen to by those guardians who have so kindly assumed superintendence over them. After the guardians have transformed their domestic cattle into dumb followers and have made sure that these placid creatures will not dare take a single step without the harness of the cart to which they are tethered the guardians then show them the danger which threatens if they try to go alone. Actually, however, this danger is not so great, for by falling a few times they would finally learn to walk alone. But an example of this failure makes them timid and ordinarily frightens them away from all further trials. “Have the courage to use your own reason!” – that is the motto of enlightenment’.
Enlightenment thought culminated historically in the political upheaval of the French Revolution. The traditional hierarchical political and social order – the French monarchy, the privileges of the French nobility, the political power and authority of the Catholic Church – were violently destroyed and replaced by a political and social order informed by the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality for all, founded , upon principles of human reason. It gave rise to a basic mode of government founded upon the consent of the governed. This also taught the society to expect that certain basic individual human rights and religious diversity need to be respected and realized by any legitimate political system.

11) Why is man’s tutelage self-incurred?
(a)  Laziness
(b)  Lack of courage to use the understanding without being directed by others
(c)  It is dangerous
(d)  There are no guardians

12) Why does the majority of mankind remain under lifelong tutelage?
(a)  The guardians are powerful
(b)  It is dangerous to walk alone
(c)  Laziness and cowardice
(d)  The monarchy, nobility and Church have great powers.

13) Which of the following did not form the ideological basis of the new French Order
(a)  Catholic Church
(b)  Freedom for all
(c)  Human reason
(d)  Equality

14) Enlightenment resulted in the model of government that was founded on
(a) acceptance of the people who were to be governed
(b)  Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
(c)  Human Rights
(d)  Religious Diversity

15) What did the society learn to expect as a result of the Enlightenment ?
(a)  Any legitimate political system should respect basic human rights and religious diversity.
(b) People should give consent to  their rulers.
(c)  Humans should have the courage to think independently.
(d)  Freedom, equality and human reason should form the basic of a State.

Read the following passage and  answer the questions from 16 to 20 :
Let us further consider the formation of concepts. Every word instantly becomes a concept precisely insofar as it is not supposed to serve as a remainder of the unique and entirely individual original experience to which it owes its origin but rather , a word becomes a concept insofar as it simultaneously has to fit countless more or less similar cases – which means  , purely and simply, cases which are never equal and thus altogether unequal. Every concept arises from the equation of unequal things. Just as it is certain that one leaf is never totally the same as another , so it is certain that the concept ‘leaf is formed by arbitrarily discarding these individual differences and by forgetting the distinguishing aspects. This awakens the idea that, in addition to the leaves, there exists in nature the ‘leaf : the original model according to which all the leaves were perhaps woven, sketched, measured , coloured, curled, and painted – but by incompetent hands, so that no specimen has turned out to be a correct, trustworthy and faithful likeness of the original model. We call a person ‘honest’, and then we ask ‘why has he behaved so honestly today?’ Our usual answer is , ‘on account of his honesty’. Honesty! This in turn means that the leaf is the cause of the leaves. We know nothing whatsoever about an essential quality called ‘honesty’; but we do know of countless individualized and consequently unequal actions which we equate by omitting the aspects in which they are unequal and which we now designate as ‘honest’ actions. Finally, we formulate from them a qualities occulta which has the name ‘honesty’. We obtain the concept, as we do the form, by overlooking what is individual and actual, whereas  nature is acquainted with no forms and no concepts, and likewise with no species, but only with an X which remains inaccessible and undefinable for us. For even our contrast between individual and species is something anthropomorphic and does not originate in the essence of things; although we should not presume to claim that this contrast does not correspond to the essence of things  : that would , of course be a dogmatic assertion and , as such , would be just as indemonstrable as its opposite.

16) When does a word become a concept?
1) When it is not supposed to serve as a reminder of the unique
2) On account of its ‘honesty’.
3) When it fits the cases which are never equal.
4) By overlooking the universals.
(a)  Only 1
(b)  Only 1 and 2
(c)  Only 3
(d)  All of the above

17) How is the concept of leaf formed ?
1) Arbitrarily discarding the individual differences
2) Forgetting the distinguishing aspects
3) By nature
4) By imitating the original model
(a)  only 1
(b)  only 1 and 2
(c)  only 1, 2 and 3
(d)  All of these

18) What does the nature know, if not the concepts ?
1) The individual and actual
2) Essence of things
3) Equation of unequal things
4) It is inaccessible and undefinable
(a)  only 1
(b)  only 1 , 2 and 3
(c)  only 4
(d)  only 2 and 4

19) What actions does a leaf perform if it wants to get equated with the concept of leaf?
1) To become one with individual differences.
2) To discard the distinguishing aspects.
3) To forget the distinguishing aspects
4) The equation of unequal things
(a)  only 1 and 2
(b)  only 3 and 4
(c)  only 1, 2 and 4
(d)  only 2, 3 and 4

20) Which experience should count as a parameter of formulating a concept ?
1) The original experience
2) The instant experience
3) The equating principle
4) None of the above
(a)  only 1 , 2 and 3
(b) only 4
(c)  only 3
(d)  only 1 and 2

Bottled Water and Its Environmental Cost
The next time you buy a bottle of drinking water, you need tot pause and think. You many not bat an eyelid shelling out Rs.15 for a litre of bottled water but what you don’t realise is that you are actually  paying over 4,200 times of a what you normally pay for a litre of tap water.

The economics of drinking water has always baffled me. What is perplexing is that the average urban middle class squirms and protests if the Delhi Jal Board, for instance, tries to ‘nominally’ raise the price of tap water. Paying a little over one paise for three litres of tap water (DJB prices tap water at Rs.3)50 per 1000 litres) they feel they are already being made to pay through the nose.
Price being of little constraint for the consumers, the global bottled water industry is galloping in 2004, the world consumed 154 billion litres, of which India’s share was 5.1 billion litres. Expected to grow at 40 percent annually, the Rs.1,800 crore bottle water industry is experiencing unprecedented boom with over 1200 water factories doing business throughout the country.
If you think bottled water assures you of purity and safety, it is time you think again. Even in the U.S., despite strict quality norms formulated by the Food and Drug Administration, it is safely assumed that nearly 40 percent of the bottled water is repacked pipe water.
Shockingly, what is little known is that more than five litres of water is required to produce every litre of packed water. In other words, 770 billion litres of water were used to produce and pack the 154 billion litres of water that the world consumed in 2004) What a colossal waste!
Bottled water also has additional , hidden environmental costs. According to the pacific Institute in California, the entire process of making plastic for the bottles  requires huge energy. In America alone, where nearly 26 billion litres of bottled water was consumed in 2004, an equivalent of 20 million barrels of oil was required every year to manufacture and transport the bottles. The accumulation of plastic bottles in the landfills also adds to global warming besides contaminating the groundwater.
But are people beginning to see the damage being done by the bottled water industry? Yes, a number of restaurants in the U.S have begun to serve only filtered water to customers instead of bottled water. City authorities are also waking up. Recently, San Francisco Mayor, Gavin Newsom has issued on order to ban city departments, agencies and contractors from using city funds to serve water in plastic bottles and in larger dispensers when tap water is available. His argument is that for the price of one litre of bottled water local residents can purchase 1000 litres of safe drinking water from the taps.

21) What is the environmental cost of bottled water ?
1) 20 million barrels of oil
2) Global warming
3) Contamination of ground water
4) Deforestation
(a)  Only 1 and 2
(b) Only 2 and 3
(c) Only 1, 2 and 3
(d)  Only 3 and 4

22) Which of the following steps are taken in the U.S to reduce the damage caused by bottled water ?
1) Serve only filter water in restaurants
2) Ban city departments ,  agencies and contractors from using city funds to serve water in plastic bottles.
3) To ban water from bottles in large scale where tap water is available
(a)  only 1 and 2
(b)  only 3
(c)  only 1 and 3
(d)  all of the above

23) Which of the following statements is not correct about bottled water industry ?
1) Global water industry is galloping
2) There are 1200 bottled water factories in India.
3) In USA 50% of the bottled water is repacked by pipe water.
4) Accumulation of plastic water bottles in landfills adds to contamination  of ground water.
(a)  only 1 and 2
(b)  only 3 and 4
(c)  only 3
(d)  only 4

24) How much water is required to produce every 1 litre of bottled waater ?
(a) 2 litres
(b)  4 litres
(c)  5 litres
(d)  100 litres

25) In U.S how many barrels of oil is required every year to manufacture and transport the bottled water ?
(a) 10 million
(b)  20 million
(c)  5 million
(d)  2 million

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 26 to 30 :
Poverty springs from a number of sources, the more important of which are controllable. So does special privilege. I think it is entirely feasible to abolish both poverty and special privilege and there can be no questions but that their abolition os desirable. Both are unnatural, but it is work, not law, to which we must look for results.

By poverty I mean the lack of reasonably sufficient food, housing and clothing for an individual or a family. There will have to be differences in the grades of sustenance. Men are not equal in mentality or in physique. Any plan which starts with the assumption that men are or ought to be equal is unnatural and therefore unworkable. There can be no  feasible or desirable process of levelling down. Such a course only promotes poverty by making it universal instead of exceptional. Forcing the efficient producer to become insufficient does not make the inefficient producer more efficient . Poverty can be done away with only by plenty, and we have now gone far enough along in the science of production to be able to see, as a natural development, the day when production and distribution will be so scientific that all may have according to ability and industry.
The extreme Socialists went wide of the mark in their reasoning that industry would inevitably crush the worker. Modern industry is gradually lifting the worker and the world. We only need to know more about planning and methods. The best results can and  will be brought about by individual initiative and ingenuity – by intelligent individual leadership. The government, because it is essentially negative, cannot give positive aid to any really constructive programme. It can give negative aid – by removing obstructions to progress and by ceasing to be burden upon the community.

The underlying causes of poverty, as I can see them are essentially due to the bad adjustments between production and distribution, in both industry and agriculture – between the source of power and its application.

26) Poverty and privilege both are
(a) Natural
(b)  Unnatural
(c)  God-gifted
(d)  All of the above

27) Poverty is defined as
(a)  Lack of land
(b)  Lack of food
(c)  Lack of housing
(d)  Lack of food, housing and clothing

28) What is assumed in an unnatural and unworkable plan?
(a)  Nature provides unlimited resources
(b)  Men are or ought to be equal
(c)  Urbanisation is the base for development.
(d)  Equal distribution of income.

29) Socialists are of the opinion that
(a) Industrialization is against  common man
(b)  Capitalists are against the workers
(c) Industry would crush the workers  
(d)  Workers are the back of the development.

30) Based on the passage, which of the following statements is not correct?
1) Government is essentially negative.
2) Government can give the positive aid.
3) Government can give the negative aid.
(a)  only 1
(b) only 1 and 3
(c)  only 1, 2 and 3
(d)  only 1

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 31 to 35:
Sound waves are formed due to vibrations of particles and propagate in a material medium in the form longitudinal waves. The sound of waves of frequency less than 20 Hz are called infrasonic waves. The human ear can hear the sound waves between frequency range 20 Hz to 20000 kHz. This is the audible range. The sound waves of frequency greater than the audible range are audible to certain animals such as cats , dogs, bats etc. These are the ultrasonic waves, their path and are reflected. The bat can use echoes to detect the obstacles and hence avoid collisions with them. Thus a bat can find its way even is the dark.
Ultrasonic waves are produced by piezoelectric oscillators and magnetostriction oscillator method and detected by kundt’s tube, Quartz crystal and Thermal detector methods.
The waves having more frequency, possess more energy. Hence ultrasonic waves possess high energy. Like sound waves, ultrasonic waves also get reflected, refracted and absorbed. Their velocity increases with frequency.
Ultrasonic waves are in many industrial , scientific and medical sciences. Sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) is the instrument which can produce, transmit and receive ultrasonic waves. This technique is used to determine the distance and location of underwater objects such as submarines, icebergs, etc. Using ultrasonic waves. It can be used to determine the depth of the sea. For this a transmitter and a detector are installed in  a ship. Ultrasonic waves are also used for ship to  ship communication, welding  plastic surfaces, to kill bacteria in liquids like milk to preserve them, in echocardiography, for imaging internal organs of the human body, in industry to clean parts of machines, to detect cracks  and flaws in metal blocks.

31) Ultrasonic waves are _______ in nature.
(a)  Transverse
(b)  Longitudinal
(c)  Electromagnetic
(d)  Stationary

32) Ultrasonic waves are those waves which
(a)  human beings cannot hear
(b)  human beings can hear
(c)  have less frequency
(d)  None of the above

33) The echocardiography technique is based on
(a)  Transverse waves
(b)  Infrasonic waves
(c)  Ultrasonic waves
(d)  Longitudinal waves

34) To determine the depth of sea this technique is used:
(a)  Thermal detector
(b)  Kundt’s tube
(c)  Oscillator
(d)  SONAR

35) The waves of frequency _______ are used to kill the bacteria in liquids like milk.
(a)  less than 20 Hz
(b)  between 20 Hz to 20  kHz
(c)  greater than 20 kHz
(d)  None of the above

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 36 to 40 :
The subject Plant Breeding, although developed in recent times on modern scientific lines after Mendel’s discoveries, was known in early times to Egyptians and Assyrians. Later during 18th and 19th centuries several artificial crossings were made by many workers and interesting results obtained in the form of new varieties . But it was Mendel who first laid down the foundations of plant breeding on scientific basis and formulated the laws of inheritance of characters.

Hybridisation between two varieties of a species brings about a combination of desirable characteristics. A plant breeder specializes in crossing plants with the desirable character. Thomass Fairchild [1717] was the first person to obtain a successful hybrid by crossing Sweet William and Carnation. The knowledge of Mendel’s laws has made the job of a  plant breeder scientific, reliable and predictable. In bisexual plants the anthers of stamens of the female parents have to be removed [emasculation] in order to prevent self-pollination. Emasculation is not required in unisexual flowers and in the self-sterile bisexual female parents. Male sterility has been reported in Maize, Wheat , Sorghum, Barley, Cucumbers, Tomatoes, Onion and Sunflowers.

Sterile males are of great help in raising hybrids of desirable characters. Stigmas of the carpels are enclosed within polyethylene bags since the early state to prevent pollination by the pollen grains of unwanted plants. The bags are  put back in place after dusting the stigmas with the pollen grains of desirable plants. This process is called bagging.
Hybrids : The Hybrids are usually interspecific i.e. intervarietal. Interspecific and intergeneric hybrids are not possible. A  rare example of interspecific hybrids is the Mule in animals and the Triticale is an intergeneric hybrids between Wheat [Triticum] and Rye [Secale]. Such hybrids are bound to be sterile  due to lack of homologous chromosomes. Generally, a hybrid may be heterozygous for only one gene or for a number of genes.
The breeding of hybrid corn is a very significant example of hybridization. It is obtained by crossing two inbreed or homozygous lines of maize. The inbreed lines are true breeding and highly uniform.
Hybrid vigour or Heterosis : The hybrids often exhibit hybrid vigour which is defined as the increased vigour [superiority] of the hybrid over either parent in one or more traits e.g. in growth , yield, disease resistance, etc. Maize plants exhibit a very high degree of hybrid vigour [25% higher yield] . Other plants showing hybrid vigour are Sorghum, Rice, Bajra, Sugarbeet, Petunia, Cabbage, Cucumber, etc. The plants which are self-pollinating types lose heterosis by inbreeding and therefore, pure parental lines are crossed every year to obtain seeds with high degree of heterosis.
On the other hand, hybrid vigour is not lost and persists if the desirable hybrid once obtained is subjected to vegetative propagation e.g. Mango, Apple, Guava, Dahlia , Chrysanthemum, Rose, etc.

36) Heterosis is
(a)  Appearance of spontaneous mutations
(b)  Induction of mutations
(c)  Mixtures of two or more traits
(d)  Superiority of hybrids over their parents

37) Bagging is done to
(a)  Avoid self-pollination
(b)  Avoid cross pollination
(c)  Achieve desired pollination
(d)  Prevent contamination from foreign pollen

38) Pure line breed refers to
(a)  Heterozygosity and  linkage
(b)  only heterozygosity
(c)  Homozygosity and self-assortment
(d)  only homozygosity

39) The new varieties of plants are produced by
(a)  Selection and Introduction
(b)  Mutation and Selection
(c)  Selection and Hybridization
(d)  Introduction and Mutation

40) Heterosis lost due to continuous inbreeding in known as
(a)  Hybrid vigour
(b)  Outbreeding pressure
(c)  Inbreeding depression
(d)  None of the above

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 41 to 45:
During the interactions with a group of standard VI students, Dr. Sarvesh demonstrated various experiments involving physical changes viz. Vapourisation/Evaporation [liquid to gas] , Melgint [solid to liquid], Sublimation [solid to gas] and Chemical changes viz. Neutralization [reaction between alkali], Precipitation [reaction between ammonium chloride/potassium chloride and silver nitrate].
This group enjoyed the session and demanded little more information regarding detection of cations and anions in the given solution. With this demand, Dr. Saarvesh designed three experiments [one by observing the changes in the colours of the test papers and another, just observing  the change] to detect the presence of  ammonium radical in the given salts.

Dr. Sarvesh dissolved a small amount [approximately 0 – 100g] of  each, solid ammonium chloride and solid potassium chloride separately in 2)0 cm of de-ionised water, in two different test tubes labelled ‘1’ and ‘2’ respectively. Two drops of each of the above  solutions were separately taken in three different dry test tubes forming two different stes; one set kept on the extreme left and another on the extreme right. The three test tubes, in each of the two sets, were gently heated on adding six drops of 2N sodium hydroxide [alkali] to each and the evolved gases were carefully brought in contact, separately, with a moist red litmus paper, a moist turmeric paper and a glass rod dipped in dilutee hydrochloric acid.

Above the test tubes on the left had side, in the first case, the paper turned blue [this was exactly opposite to acidic gases which turn moist blue litmus red], in the second case the paper turned brown and in the last case dense white fumes of ammonium chloride were observed. No such changes were observed in the colours of both the papers nor dense white fumes above the test tube on the right. Dr. Sarvesh explained that during the reactions between the reagents gaseous ammonia is liberated which is alkaline in nature and inferred that the solution in the left hand side test tubes contains ammonium radical while that in the right hand side test tube does not.
Dr. Sarvesh then asked students to perform the test. In the first experiment, Ms. Riya, in addition to the earlier observations, found red litmus turning blue for the test tube on theh right while Mr. Ravie , did not get the desired colour change of the turmeric paper on the left hand side test tube. Dr. Sarvesh explained to the students the proper way to perform the tests. Following the instructions from Dr.Sarvesh, when the students correctly performed the tests, they got the desired results.

41) The following conclusion can be drawn from the above passage
(a)  Ammonia chloride is only soluble in water
(b)  Ammonia chloride is soluble in water as well as could be sublimative
(c)  Ammonium chloride is only sublimative
(d)  Ammonium chloride is soluble in water but not sublimative.

42) The correct observations due to the presence of ammonium ions are
(a)  Turning red litmus blue, turning turmeric paper red and evolving dense white fumes from a glass rod dipped in dilute hydrochloric acid.
(b)  Turning red litmus blue, turning turmeric paper brown and evolving dense white fumes from a glass rod dipped in dilute hydrochloric acid.
(c)  Turning blue litmus red, turning turmeric paper brown and evolving dense white fumes from a glass rod dipped in dilute hydrochloric acid
(d)  Turning red litmus blue, turning turmeric paper brown and evolving dense white fumes from a glass rod dipped in dilute potassium chloride.

43) Ms.Riya did nott get the desired observation, because she brought
(a)  a red litmus paper in contact with tthe evolved gases above the test tube on the right.
(b)  a moist red litmus paper in contact with the evolved gases above the test tube on the right
(c)  a moist red litmus paper in contact with the solution of the test tube on the right.
(d)  None of the above

44)  Mr.Ravi did not get the desired observation, because he brought
(a)  a turmeric paper in contact with the evolved gases above the test tube on the left
(b)  a turmeric paper in contact with the evolved gases above the test tube on the right
(c)  both [a] and [b]
(d)  None of the above

45) Observations about white dense fumes are seen
1) as a result of a chemical change
2) as a result of neutralization reaction
3) because ammonium chloride sublimes
Which of the following options are correct ?
(a)   only 1 and 2
(b)  only 2 and 3
(c)  only 1 and 3
(d)  1, 2 and 3

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 46 to 50 :
Robert Frost once famously defined a liberal as someone who could not take his own side in an argument. But contemporary constructions paint an opposite picture .Liberals are seen as self-satisfied ideologues with no stomach for a diversity of ideas. Exposing the political hypocrisy of liberals has become a rhetorical gambit to delegitimize the idea of liberalism itself. Alas, it has to be said that those who use this gambit have much ammunition to deploy. But there are also other sources of concern. Nicholas Kristof in a widely discussed New York Times column, argued that the hiring practices of American universities were biased against conservatives. Liberal institutions, rather than becoming shelters for diverse ideas and genuine contestation, were turning into monoliths of political correctness. Liberals were supposed to be able to think out of their skins; now they imprison themselves in boxes. Similar charges have been voiced in India, most recently by Gurcharan Das.
These charges are often political gambits. The charge that liberals exclude and ostracise conservatives comes in many forms. There is one version  of this charge that liberals do not have to be defensive about. A conservative presumption in favour of an old order is quite often associated with hierarchy; this usually has the odour of sexism, racism, homophobia, casteism and hostility to minorities. Sometimes liberals can promote a kind of faux sanitisation of the intellectual spaces should not legitimise sexism, racism, casteism, and xenophobia is one that every decent society ought to promote.

There are conservative articulations that can, subtly or unsubtly, target specific groups. They make people uncomfortable in ways that have nothing to do with intellectual argument. Liberals are entirely right to be suspicious of these positions. To not be suspicious would be to abdicate a commitment to human dignity itself.
46) From the paragraphs, you can definitely conclude that Robert Frost is a/an
(a)  Self-satisfied person
(b)  Liberal
(c)  Conservative
(d)  Author

47) The paragraph
(a)  praises liberals
(b) criticises liberals  
(c)  argues that liberals are better than conservatives
(d)  argues that conservatives are better than liberals.

48) American universities have hiring practices opposed to
(a)  Conservatives
(b)  Liberals with an open-mind
(c)  Self-satisfied liberals having a closed mindset
(d)  Open minded conservatives
49) Nicolas Kristof is a
(a)  liberal columnist criticising conservatives
(b)  conservative columnist
(c)  introspecting liberal
(d)  introspecting conservative

50) The author of the paragraph is
(a)  racist
(b)  homophobic
(c)  worried about the deteriorating condition of liberals
(d)  worried about conservatives

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