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Ordinance Making Power of President and Governors |  Mangroves Cover in India |  Coral Reefs in India |  Seasons and Climate in India |  Constitutional and Statutory Bodies in India |  Rock Edicts of Ashoka |  Types of Motions in Parliamentary Procedure |  Types of Majorities in Parliament |  Pressure Groups in World and India |  Order of Precedence |  Types of Rocks |  Treaties in Indian History |  Types of Rocks |  Features of Indian Economy |  Geographical Indications |  Ancient History Terminology and Meanings |  Schedules of the Constitution |  Nuclear Power Plants in India List  |  Types of Clouds for SSC CGL | Nuclear Power Plants in India ListTypes of Ocean CurrentsStructure: Layers of EarthAPPSC Group 1 Answer KeySSC JE 2017 QUESTION PAPEROne Word Substitution for SSC and Bank ExamsMPSC Answer Key 2017 2017Layers of AtmosphereMPSC Answer Key 2017 2017BPSC Solved Question Paper 2017MPPSC Solved Question Paper 2017GST Bill IndiaDelhi SultanateLaw Commission of IndiaOscar Awards Winner 2017 ListDiseases in CropsCommon Drugs and UsesDifferent Types of Deserts in WorldUPSC Civil Services Exam-2016 Answer KeyUPSC CAPF Exam-2016 Answer Key | UPPSC UPPER Subordinate Exam-2016 Answer Key

Thursday, 15 June 2017

Mangroves Cover Forest in India

  MOHAMMAD ZEESHAN       Thursday, 15 June 2017

List of Mangrove Sites in India

Mangrove Forests in India for UPSC & SSC
» A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
» The term, Mangrove is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species.
» Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.
» Mangroves are salt tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions.
» Mangroves contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action.
» They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud.

A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt sprays, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.
» Presence of Mangrove ecosystems on coastline can save lives and property during natural hazards like cyclones, storm surges and erosion, as well.

Mangroves Forests in India
» The mangrove tidal forests are found in the coastal areas influenced by tides.
» Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged under water.
» The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered with mangrove vegetation.
» Mangroves in India account for about three percent of the world's mangrove vegetation.
» The following table shows the presence of mangroves in the different states of India and the total area covered by them in square kilometres.

Distribution of Mangroves in India

Rank
States/UTs with Highest Mangrove Cover 2013
Total Mangrove Cover in km2
1
West Bengal
2,097
2
Gujarat
1,103
3
Andaman And Nicobar Islands
604
4
Andhra Pradesh
352
5
Odisha
213
6
Maharashtra
186
7
Tamil Nadu
39
8
Goa
22
9
Kerala
6
10
Karnataka
3

Mangrove forests in India Map


State-wise List of Mangrove Sites in India

State/Union Territories
                         Mangrove Sites
Andaman & Nicobar
North Andaman
Nicobar
Andhra Pradesh
Coringa East
Godavari
Krishna
Goa
Goa
Gujarat
Gulf of Kutchh
Gulf of Khambhat
Dumas-Ubhrat
Karnataka
Coondapur
Dakshin Kannada/ Hannavar
Karwar
Mangalore Forest Division
Kerala
Vembanad
Kannur (North Kerala)
Maharashtra
Achra-Ratnagiri
Dev garh-Vijay
Durg
Veldur
Kundalika-Revdnada
Mumbra-Diva
Vikroli
Shreevardhan
Vaitarna
Vasai-Manori
Malvan
Orissa
Bhaitarkanika
Mahanadi
Subarnarekha
Devi-Kauda
Dhamra
Mangrove Genetic Resources Centre
Chilka
Tamil Nadu
Pichavaram
Muthupet
Ramnad
Pulicat
Kaznuveli
West Bengal
Sunderbans

Sundarbans Mangroves (India & Bangladesh)

» In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, Sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber.
» Palm, Coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta.
» Sundari trees are found in this delta region
» India's mangrove forests are known to serve as a habitat for turtles, crocodiles, gharials, and snakes.
» This region is part of the Great Sundarbans, the largest mangroves region in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
» This area covers a National Park, Tiger Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve.

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

» Bhitarkanika Mangroves is India’s second largest forest, located in the state of Odisha.
» Bhitarkanika is created by the two river deltas of Brahmani and Baitarani river and one of the important Ramsar Wetland in India.
» It is also home of salt-water crocodiles and nesting beach olive ridley sea turtle.

Godavari-Krishna Mangroves

» The Godavari-Krishna Mangroves lies in the delta of the Godavari and Krishna rivers in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
» Mangroves ecoregion is under protection for Calimere Wildlife and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary.

Pichavaram Mangroves

» Pichavaram mangrove is one of the largest mangrove in India, situated at Pichavaram near Chidambaram in the state of Tamil Nadu.
» Pichavaram ranks among one of the most exquisite scenic spots in Tamil Nadu and home of many species of aquatic birds.

Baratang Island Mangroves

» Baratang Island Mangroves is a swamp, located at Great Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
» Mangrove Swamps of Baratang Island are situated between Middle and South Andamans, capital city Port Blair.

Indo-Malaya Ecozone: Mangroves Forestes

·   Indo-Malaya Ecozone extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.
·   Indomalaya extends from Afghanistan through the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to lowland southern China, and through Indonesia as far as JavaBali, and Borneo, east of which lies the Wallace line, the realm boundary named after Alfred Russel Wallace which separates Indomalayan from Australasia.
·   Indomalaya also includes the Philippines, lowland Taiwan, and Japan's Ryukyu Islands.

» Mangroves occur on Asia's south coast, throughout the Indian subcontinent, in all South-east Asian countries, and on islands in the Indian Ocean, Persian GulfArabian SeaBay of BengalSouth China SeaEast China Sea and the Pacific.
» The mangal (Mangroves) is particularly prevalent in the deltas of large Asian rivers.
» The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world, located in the Ganges River delta in Bangladesh and West BengalIndia.
» The Pichavaram mangroves in Tamil Nadu is India's one of the largest mangrove forests.
» The Bhitarkanika Mangroves Forest of Odisha, by the Bay of Bengal, is India's second largest mangrove forest.
» Other major mangals (Mangroves) occur on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat.
» Mangroves occur in certain muddy swampy islands of the Maldives.
» On the Malayan Peninsula Mangroves cover an estimated 1,089.7 square kilometres (420.7 sq mi), while most of the remaining 5,320 square kilometres (2,054 sq mi) mangroves in Malaysia are on the island of Borneo.
» In Vietnam, mangrove forests grow along the southern coast, including two forests: the Can Gio Mangrove Forest biosphere reserve and the U Minh mangrove forest in the sea and the coastal region of Kiên GiangCà Mau and Bc Liêu provinces.
» The mangrove forests of Kompong Sammaki in Cambodia are of major ecological and cultural importance, as the human population relies heavily on the crabs and fish that live in the roots.
» The three most important mangrove forests of Taiwan are Tamsui River in Taipei, Jhonggang River in Miaoli and the Sihcao Wetlands in Tainan.
» According to research, four types of mangrove exist in Taiwan.
» Some places have been developed as scenic areas, such as the log raft routes in Sihcao.
» The most extensive mangrove forests of the Ryukyu Islands in the East China Sea occur on Iriomote Island of the Yaeyama IslandsOkinawaJapan.
» Seven types of mangroves are recognised on Iriomote Island.
» The northern limit of mangrove forests in the Indo-Malaya ecozone is considered to be Tanegashima IslandKyushu, Japan.

Frequently Asked Questions with Answers

What are the characteristics of Mangrove forests?

Mangrove forests are salt-tolerant trees that grow mainly over swamp soils found mainly along the coastal regions. These trees have deep root system so that they cannot be uprooted due to wave action. These can act as cushions in case of cyclones and tsunami reducing the negative effect caused by storm surge in seas. These also support highly diverse species of invertebrates as well as vertebrate and plant species making them highly biodiverse regions of the world.

Which one of the following regions of India has a combination of mangrove forest, evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
(a) North Coastal Andhra Pradesh
(b) South-West Bengal
(c) Southern Saurashtra
(d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Answer:(d) Andaman and the Nicobar Islands
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