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Wednesday, 14 June 2017

Seasons and Climate in India

  By GK Planet Team       Wednesday, 14 June 2017
This article has covered all the seasons and climate of India. At the end of the article, few questions have been given in order to revise the topic.

Seasons and Climate of India
Season and Climate of India

Different Types of Seasons in India

» Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
»  Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere,  just below the stratosphere.
» Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.
» India is a large country. It extends over an area of several thousand square miles. Its climate differs from state to state.
» The seasons in the South are different from those in the North. But there are four main seasons that are common to the whole India. They are the summer, the rainy season, the winter and the spring.

Seasons in India with Month

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four climatological seasons:
1. Winter, occurring from December to March. The year's coldest months are December and January when temperatures average around 10–15 °C (50–59 °F) in the north-west; temperatures rise as one proceeds towards the equator, peaking around 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) in mainland India's south-east.
2. Summer or pre-monsoon season, lasting from April to June (April to July in northwestern India). In western and southern regions, the hottest month is April; for northern regions of India, May is the hottest month. Temperatures average around 32–40 °C (90–104 °F) in most of the interior.
3. Monsoon or rainy season, lasting from July to September. The season is dominated by the humid south-west summer monsoon, which slowly sweeps across the country beginning in late May or early June. Monsoon rains begin to recede from North India at the beginning of October. South India typically receives more rainfall.
4. Post-monsoon or autumn season, lasting from October to November. In the north-west of India, October and November are usually cloudless. Tamil Nadu receives most of its annual precipitation during the northeast monsoon season.

Seasons in India


  1. Cold Weather Season or Winter (December to February)
  2. Hot Weather Season or Summer (March to May)
  3. South West Monsoon Season or Rainy (June to September)
  4. Season of Retreating Monsoon or Autumn (October to November)

1.Winter season (from December to February)

» Winter season started from December to February. Once the monsoons subside, average temperatures gradually fall across India.
» In this time the sun exists just above the Tropic of Capricorn and sunlight falls obliquely on various places of India and as a result temperature begins to decrease.
» There is a high pressure over the Asia continent. The Indian Ocean, being warmer, has a relatively low pressure.

2.Hot Weather Season or Summer (March to May)

» During the three months from March to May. It is a summer in most of India.
» Summer in northwestern India starts from April and ends in July, and in the rest of the country from March to May.
» The temperatures in the north rise as the vertical rays of the Sun reach the Tropic of Cancer.
» The hottest month for the western and southern regions of the country is April; for most of North India, it is May.
» Temperatures of 50 °C (122 °F) and higher have been recorded in parts of India during this season. Another striking feature of summer is the Loo (wind).
» Loo are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds that blow during the day in India. Direct exposure to these winds may be fatal.
» In cooler regions of North India, immense pre-monsoon squall line thunderstorms, known locally as "Nor'westers", commonly drop large hailstones.

3.South West Monsoon Season or Rainy

» The rainy season in India begins generally from the second week of June and continues up to the second week of October.
» A product of south-east trade winds originating from a high-pressure mass centred over the southern Indian Ocean, the monsoonal torrents supply over 80% of India's annual rainfall. Attracted by a low-pressure region centred over South Asia, the mass spawns surface winds that ferry humid air into India from the south-west.
» The south-west monsoon arrives in two branches: the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch. The latter extends towards a low-pressure area over the Thar Desert and is roughly three times stronger than the Bay of Bengal branch.
» The monsoon typically breaks over Indian territory by around 25 May, when it lashes the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. It strikes the Indian mainland around 1 June near the Malabar Coast of Kerala.
» By 9 June, it reaches Mumbai; it appears over Delhi by 29 June.
» The Bay of Bengal branch, which initially tracks the Coromandel Coast northeast from Cape Comorin to Orissa, swerves to the north-west towards the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
» The Arabian Sea branch moves northeast towards the Himalayas.
» By the first week of July, the entire country experiences monsoon rain; on average, South India receives more rainfall than North India. However, Northeast India receives the most precipitation.
» Monsoon clouds begin retreating from North India by the end of August; it withdraws from Mumbai by 5 October.
» As India further cools during September, the south-west monsoon weakens.
» By the end of November, it has left the country.

4. Season of Retreating Monsoon or Autumn

» From the beginning of October, monsoon begins to recede from this country and consequently rainfall becomes frequent. So this period is also called the season of return Monsoon.
» Though the rainy season is no longer there, yet, due to the cyclone coming from the Bay of Bengal, occasionally violent storms and rainfall are observed.
» This season brings the ‘mellow fruitfulness, ’ and it is the season of flowers. Everyone are enjoying this season with cheerful mood. In this season sky, is seems clear and white clouds become like patches which look very pleasant.
» And sky also appears to smile in nice sunlight.
» Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive most of its annual precipitation during the northeast monsoon season.

Climate in India

» Climate is the average weather condition.
» The climate of India has broadly been described as “monsoon Type”.
» Due to India’s location in the "Tropical region", most of the rain of the rain is brought by “Monsoon Winds”.
» The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea & relief.
» Jaisalmer in the desert of Rajasthan is very hot while Drass & Kargil in Jammu & Kashmir are freezing cold.
» Coastal Places like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate.
» By average annual rainfall, the wettest place is Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India, with 11,873 mm (467 in) of rain per annum. Meghalaya means 'land of the clouds'. Most of the rain occurs during the monsoon season, between June and September.

Important Questions with Answers asked, based on Seasons and Climate of India
How many types of monsoon are there in India?
In India, there are two types of monsoons - the south-west monsoon and the northeast monsoon. The south-west monsoon, which is the main monsoon, comes in from the sea and starts making its way up India's west coast in early June. By mid-July, most of the country is covered in rain.

What are the four seasons in a year?
The passing of a year can bring a marked change in the weather and the surrounding environment. The four seasons — winter, spring, summer, autumn — can vary significantly in characteristics and can prompt changes in the world around them.

What are the six seasons in India?
The six Indian seasons classified in the Hindu scriptures are:
  1. Vasant Ritu, or Spring.
  2. Grishma Ritu, or Summer.
  3. Varsha Ritu, or Monsoon.
  4. Sharad Ritu, or Autumn.
  5. Hemant Ritu, or Pre-winter.
  6. Shishir/ Shita Ritu, or Winter.
Q.1. Besides landforms and drainage, which is the third basic element of the natural environment?
(a) Temperature
(b) Wind
(c) Rainfall
(d) Climate
Answer: (d)
Q.2. Why do we wear woollen clothes in winter?
(a) To ward off cold
(b) To ward off heat
(c) To remain calm
(d) To remain drenched
Answer: (a)
Q.3. Which of the following statements defines weather?
(a) Envelope of air surrounding Earth
(b) State of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time
(c) Atmospheric conditions over a large area for a long period of time
(d) Generalised monthly atmospheric conditions.
Answer: (b)
Q.4. In which of the following places of India precipitation is in form of snowfall?
(a) Shillong
(b) Drass
(c) Chandigarh
(d) Haridwar
Answer: (b)
Q.5. Which of the following places of India experiences the highest summer temperature?
(a) Pahalgam
(b) Leh
(c) Thiruvananthapuram
(d) Jaisalmer
Answer: (d)
Q.6. Which of the following is the rainiest station?
(a) Shillong
(b) Mumbai
(c) Chennai
(d) Kolkata
Answer: (a)
Q.7. The sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time is called
(a) weather
(b) climate
(c) hot weather
(d) cold weather
Answer: (b)
Q.8. Most parts of India receive rainfall during which of the following months?
(a) December to February
(b) March to May
(c) June to September
(d) October to November
Answer: (c)
Q.9. In which of the following months does the Tamil Nadu coast get most of its rainfall?
(a) December to February
(b) March to May
(c) June to September
(d) October to November
Answer: (d)
Q.10. The state of atmosphere over an area at any point of time is known as
(a) weather
(b) climate
(c) heat
(d) cold
Answer: (a)
Q.11. In which of the following places of India there is very little difference between day and night temperatures?
(a) Guwahati
(b) Nagpur
(c) Thiruvananthapuram
(d) Delhi
Answer: (c)
Q.12. In which of the following places are houses built on stilts?
(a) Assam
(a) Assam
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Goa
(d) Kerala
Answer: (a)
Q.13. Which one of the following is not one of the six major controls of the climate of any place?
(a) Latitude
(b) Temperature
(c) Pressure and wind system
(d) Distance from the sea
Answer: (b)
Q.14. Latitude and altitude of a place determine which of the following climatic elements of a place?
(a) Pressure and wind system
(b) Temperature
(c) Rainfall pattern
(d) All the above
Answer: (d)
Q.15. Which of the following places have cooler climate even during summers?
(a) Allahabad
(b) Mumbai
(c) Mussoorie
(d) Amritsar
Answer: (c)
Q.16. Which of the following places of India experiences the extreme type of climate?
(a) Shillong
(b) Bengaluru
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi
Answer: (d)
Q.17. Due to which of the following factors does Pune receive much lesser rainfall as compared to Mumbai?
(a) It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats
(b) It is located on windward side of Western Ghats
(c) Continentality
(d) Distance from the sea
Answer: (a)
Q.18. Which of the following latitudes passes through the middle of our country, giving it the characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climate?
(a) Tropic of Capricorn
(b) Tropic of Cancer
(c) Equator
(d) 82°30'N
Answer: (b)
Q.19. The Indian subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia due to which of the
following factors?
(a) The Tropic of Cancer
(b) The surrounding seas
(c) The Himalayas
(c) The Himalayas
(d) Ocean currents
Answer: (c)
Q.20. Which of the following atmospheric conditions govern the climate and associated weather conditions in India?
(a) Pressure and surface winds
(b) Upper air circulation
(c) Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones
(d) All the above
Answer: (d)
Q.21. Which of the following winds brings widespread rainfall over the mainland of India?
(a) Northeasterly
(b) Westerlies
(c) South-west monsoon winds
(d) Sea breeze
Answer: (c)
Q.22. Which of the following is a component of upper air circulation?
(a) North-easterlies
(b) Jet stream
(c) South-west monsoon
(d) Kal Baishakhi
Answer: (b)
Q.23. Why do coastal areas experience less contrast in temperature conditions?
(a) Due to moderating effect of the seas
(b) Due to land mass
(c) Due to heat conditions
(d) Due to none of the above three
Answer: (a)
Q.24. Due to which of the following reasons are the south-west monsoons rain-bearing winds?
(a) They blow from low-pressure area of northeastern India towards the seas
(b) They are seasonal winds
(c) They blow over the warm Indian Ocean and gather moisture
(d) They strike the Himalayas
Answer: (c)
Q.25. Which of the following prevents the south-west monsoon winds from escaping from India?
(a) The surrounding seas
(b) The Himalayas
(c) Low pressure over Central Asia
(d) The Indian deserts
Answer: (b)
Q.26. The word monsoon is derived from a word which literally means which of the following?
(a) Seasons
(b) Wind pattern
(c) Change
(d) Mausim
Answer: (a)
Q.27. Which of the following climatic controls is the most important?
(a) Latitude
(b) Altitude
(c) Pressure and wind system
(d) Continentality
Answer: (a)
Q.28. By which of the following dates do southern parts of our islands receive their first monsoon showers?
(a) First week of April
(b) First week of May
(c) First week of June
(d) Mid-October
Answer: (a)
29. The state of normal rainfall increasing suddenly and continuing constantly for several days is named as
(a) break
(b) burst
(c) mango shower
(d) kaal baishakhi
Answer: (b)
Q.30. Which of the following causes rainfall in West Bengal during the hot weather season?
(a) Mango showers
(b) Kal Baishakhi
(c) Southwest monsoon
(d) Retreating Monsoon
Answer: (b)
Q.31. In which month the transition season changes the hot rainy season to dry winter season?
(a) December to February
(b) February to March
(c) June to July
(d) October to November
Answer: (d)
Q.32. An apparent force caused by the earth's rotation is called
(a) Coriolis force
(b) centrifugal force
(c) centripetal force
(d) jet stream
Answer: (a)
Q.33. Kal Baisakhi is associated with
(a) Punjab
(b) Kashmir
(c) Karnataka
(d) Bengal
Answer: (d)
Q.34. The peninsular part of India experiences peak summers earlier than northern India because 
(a) There is less rainfall in the peninsula during that time.
(a) There is less rainfall in the peninsula during that time.
(b) Cold waves from Central Asia sweeps through the northern plains during the time.
(c) Due to northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward
(d) Clouds do not form in those months
Answer: (c)
Q.35. Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh coasts are frequented by cyclones because
(a) The level coastline makes the cyclones penetrate these areas earlier
(b) These areas are close to a volcano
(c) Low-pressure conditions in north-west India lead to the creation of depression over Andaman sea.
(d) Heavy rainfall in these parts encourage strongLow-pressure ions
Answer: (c)
Q.36. Mango showers occur in which one of the following group of two states?
(a) Bihar and West Bengal
(b) Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh
(c) Karnataka and Kerala
(d) Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh
Answer: (c)
Q.37. A broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes is known as
(a) Coriolis force
(b) ITCZ
(c) jet stream
(d) centripetal force
Answer: (b)
Q.38. Which area is not an area of low precipitation?
(a) Western Rajasthan and Gujarat
(b) Leh in Jammu and Kashmir
(c) Deccan plateau
(d) Assam
Answer: (d)
Q.39. In winter the western cyclonic disturbances originate from which sea?
(a) Mediterranean Sea
(b) Indian Ocean
(c) Caspian Sea
(d) Arabian Sea
Answer: (a)
Q.40. Which one of the following states suffers from loo?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Gujarat
(d) None of these
Answer: (c)
Q.41. Which of the following terms refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period
of time (more than thirty years)?
(a) Atmosphere
(b) Annual range of temperature
(c) Climate
(d) Monsoons
Answer: (c)
Q.42. Which of the following is not elements of weather and climate?
(a) Atmospheric pressure
(b) Temperature
(c) Humidity
(d) Altitude
Answer: (d)
Q.43. Which one of the following is the driest station?
(a) Mumbai
(b) Leh
(c) Bengaluru
(d) Delhi
Answer: (b)
Q.44. Which of the following places in India experiences a very high diurnal range of temperature?
(a) Kolkata
(b) Jodhpur
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi
Answer: (b)
Q.45. From which of the following pressure belts do the north-easterly trade winds originate?
(a) Equatorial low-pressure belt
(b) Subtropical high-pressure belt of the Northern Hemisphere
(c) Subtropical high-pressure belt of the Southern Hemisphere
(d) Temperate low-pressure belt of the Northern Hemisphere
Answer: (b)
Q.46. In which of the following stations of India's mainland do the monsoons arrive first?
(a) Thiruvananthapuram
(b) Kolkata
(c) Chennai
(d) Delhi
Answer: (a)
Q.47. The term monsoon is originated from?
(a) German
(b) Hindi
(c) Latin
(d) Arabic
Answer: (d)
Q.48. Which is the coldest place in India?
(a) Drass
(b) Srinagar
(c) Shillong
(d) Bikaner
Answer: (a)
Q.49. Which of the following stations of India experiences snowfall in winter?
(a) Aurangabad
(b) Guwahati
(c) Ooty
(d) Srinagar
Answer: (d)
Q.50. What is a mango shower?
(а) Premonsoon rainfall in Karnataka and Kerala
(b) Rainfall in June to September
(c) Rainfall in winter days
(d) Rainfall caused by western disturbances
Answer: (a)


Q.51.Which one of the following terms is used for the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time?
(a) Weather
(b) Winds
(c) Climate
(d) Pressure
Answer: (a)
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