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Thursday, 21 December 2017

Corruption and Its Type

  By GK Planet Team       Thursday, 21 December 2017

Corruption and Its Type

What is Corruption?



Wrongdoing on the part of an authority or powerful party through means that are illegitimate, immoral, or incompatible with ethical standards.
›It is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries.
Corruption often results from patronage and is associated with bribery.
Corruption is not just the clearly “bad” cases of government officials skimming off money for their own benefit. It includes cases where the systems don’t work well, and ordinary people are left in a bind, needing to give a bribe for the medicine or the licenses they need.

What are the different types of corruption?

1.       Political corruption
2.      Administrative corruption
3.      Professional corruption.
Political Corruption
Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes.
It can also take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money.
Evidence suggests that corruption can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less likely to identify with their country or region.
Corruption that influences the formulation of laws, regulations, and policies, such as revoking all licenses, and gaining the sole right to operate the beer or gas monopoly.

Public Corruption
Public corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain.
Corruption that alters the implementation of policies, such as getting a license even if you don’t qualify for it.

Professional Corruption
Professional Corruption means related to. It includes duplicating medicines, duplicating import items/theft items, duplicating hygienic, mixture in eatables etc. Mixture in spices, stones in cereals, animal fats in ghee, kerosene in petrol etc. are under corruption.

Corruption and India As with many developing nations, corruption is widespread in India. It has taken the role of a persistent aspect of Indian politics and administration.

Methods of Corruption
1.  Bribery
2. Embezzlement, theft and fraud
3. Extortion and blackmail
4. Networking
5.  Abuse of discretion
6. Favoritism, nepotism and clientelism

Laws to Prevent Corruption in India
1.  The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
2. India and the United Nations Convention against Corruption 2003 (UNCAC)
3. The Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002 (Article 23 of the UNCAC)
4. The Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999
5.  The Right to Information Act 2005
6. India and the United Nations Convention against Corruption 2003 (UNCAC)
7.  Cases referred by the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) and the Chief Vigilance Officers (CVOs) of other Government Departments
8. Use of Telephonic/Electronic Surveillance
9. Freezing, Seizure and Confiscation of Properties - The Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 1944 (Article 31 of UNCAC)
10.              Criminal Procedure Code 1973 together with Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLAT) in Criminal Matters and Extradition Treaties
Transparency International
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in BerlinGermany, and was founded in 1993. Its nonprofit purpose is to take action to combat global corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption. It publishes for example the Global Corruption Barometer and the Corruption Perceptions Index. Transparency International has the legal status of a German registered voluntary association (Eingetragener Verein) and serves as an umbrella organization. Its members have grown from a few individuals to more than 100 national chapters which engage in fighting corruption in their home countries. TI confirmed the dis-accreditation of the national chapter of United States of America in 2017.

Q.What are some examples of corruption?
The definition of corruption means evil, decay and dishonesty. An example of corruption is a government that pretends to be for the protection of people but is selecting vendors based on how their contracts will benefit them personally.

Q.What is an example of government corruption?
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is also considered political corruption.
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